XI. The five methods¶
Here, if the new yogin aspires after release from decay and death, and wishes to remove the cause of arising and passing away, wishes to dispel the darkness of ignorance, to cut the rope of craving and to acquire holy wisdom, he should develop the methods, namely, the aggregate-method,  sense-organ-method,  element-method,  conditioned-arising-method  and truth-method. 
The aggregate of form¶
Q. What is the aggregate-method? A. The five aggregates are, the aggregate of form,  the aggregate of feeling,  the aggregate of perception,  the aggregate of formation,  and the Aggregate of consciousness.  Q. What is the aggregate of form? A. The four primaries and the material qualities derived from the primaries. 
Four primaries defined¶
Q. What are the four primaries? Earth-element,  water-element,  fire-element,  air-element.  What is the earth-element? That which has [238/301] the nature of hardness and the nature of solidity. This is called the earth-element. What is the water-element? That which has the nature of flowing and the nature of cohesiveness. This is called the water-element. What is the fire-element? That which has the nature of heating and the nature of maturing matter. This is called the fire-element. What is the air-element? That which has the nature of moving and the nature of supporting. This is called the air-element. 
The new yogin overcomes difficulties in two ways, namely, through viewing these briefly and through viewing these at length. This should be understood as was fully taught in the determining of the four elements.
Derived material qualities¶
What are the derived material qualities? The sense-organs of eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, matter as sense-object, sound as sense-object, odour as sense-object, taste as sense-object, femininity, masculinity, life-principle, body-intimation, speech-intimation, element of space, buoyancy of matter, impressibility of matter, adaptibility of matter, integration of matter, continuity of matter, decay of matter, impermanency of matter, solid food, the basis of the material element and the material quality of torpor. 
Sense-organ of eye¶
What is the sense-organ of eye? By this matter is seen. Visible objects [239/302] impinging on this, visual consciousness is aroused.  This is called the senseorgan of eye. And again, the sensory matter that depends on the three small fleshy discs round the pupil, and the white and black of the eye-ball that is in five layers of flesh, blood, wind, phlegm and serum, is half a poppy-seed in size, is like the head of a louseling, is made by the four primaries according to past kamma,  and in which the primary of heat is in excess, is called the sense-organ of the eye.
 It is as has been taught by the Possessor of Great Skill, the Venerable Elder Sāriputta, “The organ of visual sense, by which one sees objects, is small and subtle like (the head of) a louse”. 
Sense-organ of ear¶
What is the sense-organ of ear? By this sounds are heard. Sound impinging on this, auditory consciousness is aroused. This is called the senseorgan of ear. And again, the sensory matter that is in the interior of the two ear-holes, is fringed by tawny hair, is dependent on the membrane, is like the stem of a blue-green bean, is produced by the four primaries according to kamma and in which the element of space is in excess, is called the senseorgan of ear. 
Sense-organ of nose¶
What is the sense-organ of nose? By this odours are sensed. Odour impinging on this, olfactory consciousness arises. This is called the senseorgan of nose. And again, the sensory matter that, in the interior of the nose, where the three meet,  is dependent on one small opening, is like a Koviḷāra  (flower in shape), is produced by the four primaries, according to past kamma, and in which the primary of air is in excess, is called the senseorgan of nose.
Sense-organ of tongue¶
What is the sense-organ of tongue? By this tastes are known. Taste impinging on this, gustatory consciousness is aroused. This is called the [240/303] sense-organ of tongue. And again, the sensory matter that is two-finger breadths in size, is in shape like a blue lotus,  is located in the flesh of the tongue, is a product of the four primaries, is wrought according to past kamma, and in which the primary of water is in excess, is called the sense-organ of tongue.
Sense-organ of body¶
What is the sense-organ of body? By this tangibles are known. By the impact of tangibles on this, tactual consciousness is aroused. This is called sense-organ of body. And again, it is the sensory matter that is in the entire body, excepting the hair of the body and of the head, nails, teeth and other insensitive parts, is produced by the four primaries, according to past kamma, and in which the primary of earth is in excess. This is called the sense-organ of body. Material sense-object is the reaction of visible objects, auditory sense-object is the reaction of sound, olfactory sense-object is the reaction of odour, gustatory sense-object is the reaction of flavour. Femininity is the characteristic of female nature; masculinity is the characteristic of male nature; that which preserves the body wrought by kamma, is called life- principle; body intimation means bodily activities; speech intimation means verbal activities; what delimits matter is called the element of space. Buoyancy of matter means, the lightness-characteristic of material nature; impressibility of matter means, the plasticity-characteristic of material nature; adaptibility of matter means, the workability-characteristic of material nature; these three are the characteristics of non-sluggishness in material nature; the accumulation of these sense-organs is called the integration of matter. This integration of matter is called the continuity of matter. The arising of material objects is the coming to birth of matter; the maturing of material objects is the decay of matter; matter decays—this is called the impermanency of matter. That, by which beings get nutritive essence, is called solid food. The growth which is dependent on the primaries and the element of consciousness, is called the sense-organ of the material element. All primaries are characterized by the material quality of torpor. These twenty-six material qualities and the four primaries make up thirty kinds of matter. 
Difference between the four primaries and derived matter¶
Q. What is the difference between the four primaries and the matter [241/304] derived from the four primaries? A. Depending on one another, the four primaries are produced. Though the four derived material qualities are produced in dependence on the four primaries, the four primaries do not depend on the derived material qualities and the material qualities derived from the four primaries are not interdependent.
Simile of the three sticks¶
The four primaries should be known as three sticks which stand supporting one another. The material qualities derived from the four primaries should be known as the shadow cast by the three sticks, which support each other. This is the difference between them. Here the yogin knows that all these thirty material qualities are of five kinds by way of arising, group, birth, diversity, unity.
Material qualities by way of arising¶
Q. How, by way of arising? A. Nine material qualities arise owing to the cause-condition of kamma. They are the sense-organs of eye, ear, nose, tongue and body, femininity, masculinity, life-principle, and the basis of the material element. Two material qualities arise owing to the cause-condition of consciousness. They are body-intimation and speech-intimation. One material quality arises owing to the cause-condition of the caloric order and consciousness. It is the auditory sense-object. Four material qualities arise owing to the cause-condition of caloricity, consciousness and nutriment. They are buoyancy of matter, impressibility of matter, adaptibility of matter and the material quality of torpor. Twelve material qualities arise owing to four cause-conditions. They are material sense-object, olfactory senseobject, gustatory sense-object, space-element, integration of matter, continuity of matter, birth of matter, solid food and the four elements.
Of two material qualities, namely decay of matter and impermanency of matter, there is no arising. And again, decay depends on birth; and depending on decay, there is impermanency. Thus one should know the character of these by way of arising.
Material qualities by way of group¶
Q. How, by way of group?  A. Nine groups are produced by kamma. Nine groups are produced by consciousness. Six groups are produced by caloric order. Three groups are produced by nutriment.
Q. What are the nine groups produced by kamma? A. They are the eye-decad, ear-decad, nose-decad, tongue-decad, body-decad, femininity-decad, masculinity-decad, basis-decad, life-ennead.  [242/305]
Q. What is the eye-decad? A. The four elements of eye-sentience are . its basis. And again, it consists of the four primaries, form, odour, flavour, contact,  life-principle and the sentient eye. This decad is produced together and does not separate. This is called “group” and this is called the eye-decad. The arising of this is birth; its maturing is called decay; its destruction is called impermanency; what delimits it is called space-element; these four and the group arise together. When the eye-decad decays, it produces a second decad; these two kinds of decads should be known as “group”. Coming after is called succession. These six states arise together. When decay sets in, the second eye-decad produces a third decad. These, the second and the third eye-decads are called “group”. Coming after is called succession. The first decad is scattered, the second decad decays, the third decad arises. These occur in one moment. Thus the eye-decad arises. None can discern the interval. So quick it is that by worldly knowledge it cannot be known. There is a yogin. He sees the succession of the eye. It is like a flowing stream. It is like the flame of a lamp.  Thus should the eye-decad be known. In the same way one should know the ear-decad, the nose-decad, the tongue-decad, the body-decad, femininity-decad, masculinity-decad, life-principle-ennead at length.
Q. What are the nine consciousness-born groups? A. Bare-octad, bare-body-intimation-ennead, bare-speech-intimation-heptad, bare-buoyancy-ennead, buoyancy-body-intimation-decad, buoyancy-speech-intimation-undecad, bare-eye-ennead, eye-body-intimation-decad, eye-speech-intimation-undecad.
Q. What is the consciousness-born-bare-octad? A. The four elements and visible object, odour, flavour and contact which depend on the elements. These eight are named the bare-octad.
The arising of these is birth; the maturing of these is decay; destruction of these is impermanency; what delimits these is space-element; these four states arise in them. At the time of their destruction, this bare octad sets going a second bare-octad together with the second consciousness. Destruction of the first bare (-octad) and the arising of the second bare (-octad) occur in a moment. 
In the same way, the bare-buoyancy-nonary and the bare-eye-ennead (should be understood). These six groups  are not destroyed in the first and not produced in the second, do not occur in one instant, because no two intimations can take place in one conscious track. The rest should be known in the way it was fully taught before. [243/306]
Q. What are the six groups produced by the caloric order? A. Bare-octad, bare-sound-ennead, bare-buoyancy-ennead, buoyancy-sound-decad, bare-eye-ennead, eye-sound-decad. External groups are of two kinds: bare-octad and sound-ennead.
Q. What are the three groups which are produced in nutriment? A. Bare octad, bare-buoyancy-ennead and bare-eye-ennead.
Of groups that are produced by caloric order and nutriment, the continuity, kamma and basis should be known as equal. The rest is as was taught above. The divine life-ennead is fulfilled in the sensuous element and in the sphere of action. Eight groups continue because of life: nose, tongue, body, masculinity or femininity, and the three beginning with buoyancy, and torpidity. These are not in the form-element. The divine life-ennead pertains to the unconscious Brahmas. In their body all the sense-organs exist. (Thus one should know), through groups.
Material qualities by way of birth¶
Q. How, through birth? A. It should be known by way of a male or female entering a womb. In the first moment thirty material qualities are produced.  They are the basis-decad, body-decad, femininity-decad, masculinity-decad. In the case of a person who is neither a male nor a female, twenty material qualities are produced.  They are the basis-decad and the body-decad.
Taking birth in the sensuous element, a male or a female possessed of the faculties and the sense-organs arouses seventy material qualities at the time of birth. They are the basis-decad, the body-decad, the eye-decad, the ear-decad, the nose-decad, the tongue-decad, the femininity or masculinity-decad.
When a blind male or female is born in an evil state, that person arouses sixty material qualities, at the moment of birth, namely, (all) except the eye-decad. In the same way a deaf person
 arouses sixty material qualities, namely, (all) except the ear-decad. A deaf and blind person arouses fifty material qualities namely, (all) except the eye-decad and the ear-decad. When one who is neither a male nor a female is born, at the beginning of an aeon, in an evil state, having faculties and sense-organs, that person arouses sixty material qualities at the moment of birth, namely, (all) except the masculinity or femininity decad. A person, who is neither a male nor a female and is blind, [244/307] produces fifty material qualities, namely, (all) except the eye-faculty-decad and the masculinity or femininity-decad. A person who is neither a male nor a female and who is deaf arouses fifty material qualities, namely, (all) except the ear-decad and masculinity or femininity. A person who is neither a male nor a female, and is blind and deaf, arouses forty material qualities, namely, the basis-decad, the body-decad, the nose-decad and the tongue-decad. Brahma arouses forty-nine material qualities at the moment of birth. They are the basis-decad, the eye-decad, the ear-decad, the body-decad and the life-principle-ennead. The beings of the divine-plane of inconscience arouse nine material qualities at the moment of birth, namely, the life-principle-ennead. Thus one should know through birth.
Material qualities by way of diversity,—groups of two in material qualities¶
Q. How, through diversity? A. All material qualities are of two kinds. They are gross or subtle. Here, twelve material qualities are gross, because internal and external material sense-objects are seized through impact. The other eighteen material qualities are subtle, because they are not seized through impact. And again, there are two kinds of material qualities. They are internal and external. Here, five material qualities are internal, because the five sense-organs of eye and others are limited. The other thirty-five material qualities are external matter, because they are not limited. And again, there are two kinds. They are faculty and non-faculty.  Here eight material qualities are faculty. They are the five internals (possibly, five sentient organs), the faculty of femininity, of masculinity and life; they are so because of dependence. The other twenty-two are non-faculty, because they are non-dependent. 
Groups of three in material qualities¶
All material qualities can be divided into three kinds. They are non-material qualities and arrested material qualities.  Here nine material qualities are feeling. They are the eight faculties and the material basis, because they are produced owing to kamma-result. Nine material qualities are the senseobject of sound, body-intimation, speech-intimation, buoyancy of matter, impressibility of matter, workability of matter, decay of matter, impermanency of matter and torpidity. These are not produced through kamma-result. The other twelve material qualities are breakable ones because they have two kinds of significance (?). And again, material qualities are of three kinds: visible and reacting, invisible and reacting and invisible and [245/308] non-reacting.  Here one material quality is visible and reacting, that is, material sense-object, because it can be seen and touched. Eleven material qualities are invisible and reacting. They are gross matter except material sense-object, because they cannot be seen but can be touched. Eighteen material qualities are invisible and non-reacting. All other subtle matter is invisible and non-reacting.
Four kinds of material qualities¶
Again, all material qualities are of four kinds, by way of intrinsic nature of matter, material form, material characteristics and delimitation of matter. Here nineteen material qualities are intrinsic. They are the twelve gross material qualities, femininity, masculinity, life-principle, element of water, solid food, material basis and material quality of eye, because they limit (?). Seven material qualities are material form. They are body-intimation, speech-intimation, buoyancy of matter, impressibility of matter, workability of matter, integration of matter, continuity of matter and intrinsic nature of matter, because they change. Three material qualities are material characteristics. They are birth of matter, decay of matter and impermanency of matter, because they are conditioned. One material quality is delimitation of matter. It is space-element, because it defines the groups. Here, through intrinsic nature one discriminates, not through the others. Thus one should understand through diversity.
Material qualities by way of unity¶
Q. How, through unity? A. All material qualities are one, as being not a condition, as not being non-conditioned, as being dissociated from condition, causally related, put-together, worldly, cankerous, binding, fettering, as being with flood, yoke, hindrance, as being infected, as being with faring-on, passion, as being indeterminate, objectless, non-mental, dissociated from mind, as not arising together with pleasure, as not arising together with pain, as arising together with non-pain and non-pleasure, as neither group nor non-group, as neither learning nor non-learning, as neither broken by views nor broken by concentration. Thus one should know the character of matter through unity. This is called the aggregate of matter. [246/309]
Aggregate of feeling¶
Q. What is the aggregate of feeling? A. From the point of characteristic, feeling is of one kind, as being experienced by the mind only. From the point of sense-organ, it is of two kinds thus: bodily and mental. From the point of intrinsic nature, it is of three kinds: blissful feeling, painful feeling, feeling that is neither blissful nor painful.  From the point of the Law, it is of four kinds: meritorious, demeritorious, retributive and objective. From the point of faculties, there are five kinds, namely, pleasure-faculty, pain-faculty, joy-faculty, grief-faculty, indifference-faculty.  From the point of black and white, it is of six kinds, namely, cankerous feeling of pleasure, non-cankerous feeling of pleasure, cankerous feeling of pain, non-cankerous feeling of pain, cankerous feeling of neither pain nor pleasure, non-cankerous feeling of neither pain nor pleasure. From the point of method, it is of seven kinds thus: feeling born of eye-contact, of ear-contact, of nose-contact, of tongue-contact, of body-contact, contact of mind-element, contact of mind- consciousness. Fully one hundred and eight kinds of feeling are fulfilled. Six states of feeling are aroused from craving; six from renunciation; six from grief-craving; six from grief-renunciation; six from equanimity-craving; six from equanimity-renunciation. Six times six are thirty-six, and in the three divisions of time, these thirty-six are increased three times. This is called the aggregate of feeling. 
Aggregate of perception¶
Q. What is the aggregate of perception? A. From the point of characteristic, perception is single, because only the mind apprehends objects. From the point of black and white, it is of two kinds, namely, perception-reversal and perception-non-reversal.  From the point of demerit, it is of three kinds, namely, lustful-perception, hating-perception and harming-perception. From the point of merit, it is of three kinds, namely, renunciation-perception, non-hating-perception and non-harming-perception.  From the point of not knowing the significant nature of sense-organ, it is of four kinds, namely, the perception of the ugly as beautiful, of ill as well, of impermanence as non-impermanence, of not-self as self. From the point of knowing the significant nature of sense-organ, it is of four kinds, namely, perception of the [247/310] ugly, perception of ill, perception of impermanence and perception of not-self.  According to the Vinaya, it is of five kinds, thus: the perception of the ugly as beautiful, of the ugly as ugly, of the beautiful as beautiful and the perception of uncertainty. From the point of object, there are six kinds thus: form-perception, sound-perception, perception of odour, perception of taste, perception of contact, perception of ideas.  By way of door, there are seven kinds thus: perception that is born of eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact, body-contact, mind-element-contact, consciousness-element-contact. Thus should the several kinds of perception be known. This is called the aggregate of perception. 
Aggregate of formations¶
Q. What is the aggregate of formations? A. Contact, volition, initial application of thought, sustained application of thought, joy, confidence, energy, mindfulness, concentration, wisdom, life-principle, (removal of) hindrance, non-greed, non-hate, modesty, decorum, repose, wish to do, resolve, equanimity, attention, greed, hatred, delusion, conceit, views, agitation and anxiety, uncertainty, indolence, immodesty, indecorum  and all other mental properties, except feeling and perception, belong to the aggregate of formations.
Here contact means mind touches object. It is likened to a sunbeam [248/311] touching a wall.  This is the basis of perception. Volition means the, movement of mind. It is like the movement of the foot or like the scaffolding to the builder of a house. This is the near cause of door-object. Initial application of thought is mental action. It is likened to the reciting of discourses by heart. Perception is its near cause. Sustained application of thought is investigation of objects by the mind. It is likened to thought that follows the sense. Initial application of thought is its near cause. Joy is delight of mind. It is likened to a man gaining something. Exulting is its near cause. Confidence is purity of mind. It is likened to a man purifying water through the uttering of spells. The four attributes of stream-entrance  are its near cause. Energy is vigour of mind. It is likened to the energy of an ox bearing a burden. The eight bases of agitation  are its near cause. Mindfulness is the guarding of the mind. It is likened to the oil which protects the bowl. The four foundations of mindfulness are its near cause. Concentration is unification of mind. It is likened to the flame of the lamp behind the palace. The four meditations, jhānas, are its near cause. Wisdom is seeing with the mind. It is likened to a man who has eyes.  The Four Noble Truths are its near cause. Life-faculty is formless dhamma. This is life. It is like water to lotus.  Name and form are its near cause. The rejection of the hindrances is the breaking free from the evils of the mind. It is likened to a man, wishing to enjoy life, avoiding poison.  The activity of the four meditations, jhānas, is its near cause. Non-greed is the expelling of attachment from .the mind. It is likened to a man who gets rid of something that torments [249/312] him. Renunciation is its near cause. Non-hatred is the state of a mind that is not angry. It is likened to cat-skin.  The four immeasurables are its near cause. Modesty is the feeling of shame in a man when he does wrong. It is likened to the loathing one has for excrement and urine.  Self-respect is its near cause. Decorum is the fear to do what is wrong. It is like fearing one’s superior. Respect for others is its near cause. 
 Calm is the appeasement of mental excitement. It is like taking a cold bath in the heat of summer. Joy is its near cause. The wish to do is the wish to do good. It is like a believing giver of alms. The four supernormal powers are its near cause. Resolve is the inclination of the mind. It is like water flowing deep downwards.  Initial and sustained application of thought are its near cause. Equanimity is that state of mind where it does not move back and forth. It is like a man holding a pair of scales.  Energy and the others are its near cause. Attention regulates the mind. It is like a helmsman. Both merit and demerit are its near cause. Greed is the clinging of the mind. It [250/313] is likened to a goose. Lovable and desirable forms are its near cause. Hatred is the excitement of mind. It is like an angered venomous snake.  The ten bases of hatred are its near cause. Delusion is mental blindness. It is like a man without eyes.  The four reversals are its near cause. Conceit is haughtiness of mind. It is like two men fighting. The three kinds are its near cause. Views are mental obsessions. They are compared to the blind men feeling the elephant.  The not giving heed to another’s voice is its near cause. Excitement is the non-tranquil state of mind. It is like water that is boiling. Anxiety is its near cause. Sluggishness is the slackening of mind. It is compared to desiring the foul. The falling off of good owing to the performance of evil is its near cause. Uncertainty is the leaping of the mind on to diverse objects. It is like a traveller to a distant land who is bewildered at a junction of two roads.  Wrong attention is its near cause. Indolence is negligence of mind. It is compared to a hibernating snake. The eight bases of indolence are its near cause. Immodesty is that state of mind which is not ashamed of doing ill. It is comparable to a caṇḍāla. Irreverence is its near cause. Indecorum is the non-fearing of the mind to do evil. It is like a wicked king, The non-esteem of the six is its near cause. These are called the aggregate of formations,
Aggregate of consciousness¶
Q. What is the aggregate of consciousness? A. It is eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, mind-element and mind-consciousness-element. Here, eye-consciousness is the cognizing of forms dependent on the eye. This is called eye-consciousness. Ear-consciousness is the cognizing of sounds dependent on the ear. This is called ear-consciousness. Nose-consciousness is the cognizing of odours dependent on the nose. This is called nose-consciousness. Tongue-consciousness is the cognizing of flavours dependent on the tongue. This is called tongue-consciousness. Body-consciousness is the cognizing of tangibles dependent on the body. This is called body-consciousness. Mind-element [251/314] depends on the five-door-adverting and the receiving of the desirable and the non-desirable. The cognizing (of form etc.) immediately after the five kinds of consciousness is called mind-element. Mind-consciousness-element: The mind, excepting these six kinds of consciousness, is called mind-consciousness-element. These seven kinds of consciousness should be known through these three ways: through organ-object, through object, through states.
Q. How, through sense-organ-object? A. Five kinds of consciousness are different as to sense-organ and as to object. Mind-element and mind consciouness-element are one as to sense-organ. Five-fold is the object of mind-element. Six-fold is the object of mind-consciousness-element. Five kinds of consciousness are as to state, internal; as to organ, internal; as to object, external. Mind-element is as to state, internal; as to organ, external; as to object, external. Mind-consciousness-element is as to state, internal; as to organ, external; as to object, internal and external. In respect of the six kinds of consciousness, organ and object proceed from the past. In respect of mind-consciousness-element, organ-production occurs at the moment of conception. There is no object of organ in the formless sphere because organ is produced first. Thus it should be understood through organ-object.
Q. How, through object? A. Each of the five kinds of consciousness has its limits. These (five) are not produced by one another. They are produced neither before nor after but at once, and are not produced separately. Through the five kinds of consciousness, all states cannot be known; only the first arising can be known. Through the mind-element, all states cannot be known; only those which proceed in the mind can be known. Through the six kinds of consciousness there is no establishing of postures. Through apperception  there is the fixing of them. Through the six kinds of consciousness there is no fixing of bodily and verbal activity. (Through apperception these are fixed). Through the six kinds of consciousness, meritorious and demeritorious states are not fixed. Through apperception these are fixed. Through the six kinds of consciousness, one does not enter or emerge out of concentration. Through apperception, one enters into concentration and is pacified through overcoming opposites. Through the six kinds of consciousness, nothing is caused to perish or to be produced. Through overcoming of opposites or through registration, perishing and production are caused. Mind-consciousness-element is born of result. Through the six kinds of consciousness one does not sleep, awake or dream. Through opposites one sleeps. Through [252/315] subtle light one awakes. Through apperception one dreams. Thus one should know through object.
Q. How, through states? A. Five kinds of consciousness are with initial and sustained application of thought. Mind-element is with initial and sustained application of thought. Mind-consciousness-element is with initial and sustained application of thought, or is without initial and only with sustained application of thought, or is neither with initial nor with sustained application of thought. Five kinds of consciousness act together with equanimity. Body-consciousness acts either together with pleasure or with pain. Mind-consciousness-element acts together with joy or grief or equanimity. Five kinds of consciousness are results. Mind-element is either result or means. Mind-consciousness-element is meritorious or demeritorious or result or means. Six kinds of consciousness do not arise without condition, are worldly states, with cankers, with fetters, with tangle, with flood, with yoke, with hindrance, infected, clinging, defiling, are not removed through seeing or through meditation. They are neither “group” nor “non-group”. They are neither training nor non-training. They are the subtle fetters of the sense-plane, are not fixed and are not vehicle. Mind consciousness-element has the nature of breaking up. Thus one should know to distinguish by way of states. This is called the aggregate of consciousness. Thus should the five aggregates be known.
And again, one should know the distinctive qualities of the five aggregates through four ways thus: through word meaning, through characteristic, through discrimination, through comprehension.
Through word meaning¶
Q. How, through word meaning? A. Material object means thing that is visible. Feeling means sensibility. Formations means work. Consciousness means awareness. Aggregate means variety and group. Thus one should know through word meaning.
Q. How, through characteristic? A. Material quality is its own characteristic, like a thorn. The four primaries are its near cause. The characteristic of feeling is sensitiveness. It is like disliking a leper. Contact is near cause. To support is the characteristic of perception. It is compared to an image. Contact is its near cause. The characteristic of formation is unity. It is like the turning of the wheel. Its near cause is contact. The characteristic of consciousness is awareness; it is likened to the perceiving of taste. Name and form are hear cause. Thus one should know through characteristic. [253/316]
Q. How, through discrimination? A. The aggregates are discriminated by the threefold discrimination of the five aggregates, the five clinging aggregates and the five aggregates of the Law.  Here the five aggregates are all phenomena.  The five clinging aggregates are all cankerous states. The five aggregates of the Law are: the aggregate of virtue, the aggregate of concentration, the aggregate of wisdom, the aggregate of freedom and the aggregate of the knowledge and discernment of freedom.  Here the five aggregates are to be taken.
Q. How, through comprehension? A. There are three comprehensions: sense-sphere-comprehension, element-comprehension, truth-comprehension.  Here the aggregate of form is comprehended in eleven sense-spheres. Three aggregates are comprehended in the sense-sphere of states. The aggregate of consciousness is comprehended in the sense-sphere of the mind.
The aggregate of matter is comprehended in eleven elements. Three aggregates are comprehended in the element of states. The aggregate of consciousness is comprehended in seven elements. The aggregate of virtue, the aggregate of concentration, the aggregate of wisdom, the aggregate of the knowledge and discernment of freedom are comprehended in the sense-sphere and element of states. The aggregate of freedom is comprehended in the sense-sphere of states, the sense-sphere of mind, the element of states and the mind-consciousness-element. The five aggregates are comprehended in the Truths or not comprehended in the Truths. The five aggregates of clinging are comprehended in the Truth of Ill and in the Truth of Origin. The aggregates of virtue, concentration and wisdom are comprehended in the Path-Truth. The aggregate of freedom is not comprehended in the Truths. The aggregate of knowledge and discernment of freedom is comprehended in the Truth of Ill. Some states are comprehended in the aggregates and not in the Truths. Some states are comprehended in the Truths and not in the aggregates. Some states are comprehended in the aggregates and also in the Truths. Some states are comprehended neither in the Truths nor in the aggregates. Here, the material qualities that are linked with the faculties do not associate with the Path (?). The recluse-fruit is comprehended in the aggregates and not in the Truths. Nibbāna is comprehended in the Truths and not in the aggregates. [254/317]
Three Truths are comprehended in the aggregates and also in the Truths. Restraint is not comprehended in the aggregates and also not in the Truths. Thus should one discern the method of understanding the aggregates. This is called the aggregate method.
The aggregate method has ended.
Twelve sense-organs and sense-objects¶
Q. What is the sense-organ method? A. There are twelve sense-organs (and sense-objects): sense-organ of eye, sense-object of matter, sense-organ of ear, sense-object of sound, sense-organ of nose, sense-object of odour, senseorgan of tongue, sense-object of taste, sense-organ of body, sense-object of touch, sense-organ of mind, sense-object of ideas.  Here, eye-organ is sentient element. By this one sees material objects. Material object is elemental form. This is the field of eye. The ear-organ is sentient element. By this one hears sounds. Sound-object is elemental expression. This is the field of the ear. Nose-organ is sentient element. By this one smells. Odour-object is elemental scent. It is the field of the nose. Tongue-organ is sentient element. By this one tastes. Taste-object is elemental flavour. This is the field of the tongue. The body-organ is sentient element. By it one feels fineness, smoothness (and so on). Touch-object is hardness, softness, coolness and warmth of the elements of earth, water, fire and air. This is the field of the body. Mind organ is the element of the seven kinds of consciousness. Element of ideas comprises the three formless aggregates, the eighteen subtle material qualities and Nibbāna. These are the twelve sense-organs (and sense-objects).
And again, these twelve sense-organs (and sense-objects) should be known by their distinctive qualities in five ways: through word meaning, limits, condition, arising of…  distinctive thought and comprehension.
Through word meaning¶
Q. How, through word meaning? A. Eye means, seeing. Material object means appearance. Ear means, hearing. Sound means, noise. Nose means, olfaction. Odour means, smell. Tongue means, tasting. Taste means, flavour. Body means, experiencing. Touch means, contact. Mind means, knowing. Idea means, non-living.  Organ means, entrance into the formless, place, resting-place. Thus one should know through word meaning. [255/318]
Q. How, through limits? A. Eye and ear do not reach the object. Nose, tongue and body reach the object. Mind is together with object. There is another teaching: Ear reaches the object, because if there is an obstruction nearby one does not hear sounds, as when a spell is wrought. And again, there is another teaching: Eye by itself reaches the object, because one cannot see the reverse side of a wall. Thus should one know through limits.
Q, How, through condition? A. Depending on eye, material object, light and attention, eye-consciousness arises. Here, to the arising of eye-consciousness, the eye is in the fourfold relation of pre-nascence-condition, support-condition, faculty-condition, presence-condition.  (To eye-consciousness) material object is in the threefold relation of post-nascence-condition, object-condition, presence-condition. Light is in the threefold relation of pre-nascence-condition, support-condition and presence-condition. Attention is in the twofold relation of continuity-condition and absence-condition.
Depending on ear, sound, ear-cavity and attention, ear-consciousness arises. Thus should one know through the distinguishing of condition. Depending on nose, smell, air and attention, nose-consciousness arises. Depending on tongue, taste, water and attention, tongue-consciousness arises. Depending on body, touch and attention, bodily consciousness arises. Depending on mind, ideas, life-continuum and attention, mind-consciousness arises.
Here, mind is…  ideas are the object of states. There are four kinds in this: Past, present and future of six internal sense-organs comprise the first; past, future and present of five external sense-objects, excepting non-sense-organ faculty, comprise the second. The third is the sense-object of ideas. There are eleven things viz., being, direction, season,… ∗ comprise the fourth.∗∗  These are called the object of states.
Concentration is intentness of mind on object. It is like light. Attention is mind-door-adverting. Consciousness is apperception. Here, to mind-consciousness, mind is in the relation of support-condition. Ideas are in the relation of object-condition. Life-continuum is in the relation of support-condition. Attention is in the twofold relation of continuity-condition and presence-condition. Thus should it be understood through condition.
Q. How, through the arising of distinctive thought? A. Three kinds are fulfilled at the eye-door. They are the objects of very great intensity, great intensity and slight intensity.  Of these, those of very great intensity [256/319] fulfil seven stages and are born in avīci, the great hell. After the vibration of the life-continuum, adverting, discerning, receiving, examining, determining, apperceiving and registering follow.
Simile of the thread¶
Here the life-continuum is the consciousness-faculty of becoming. It is likened to the drawing of thread.  Adverting is conditioned by the visible object at the eye-door. Through the visible object entering the field (of presentation?), the life-continuum vibrates, and is followed by adverting to the visible object. Adverting which depends on the eye is followed by discerning. This is followed by reception in the sense of experience. Then follows examining in the sense of (investigating) experience. After that comes determining in the sense of understanding. Determining proceeds and is followed by apperception according to action. Apperception proceeding in the sense of full cognition and not in the sense of means, is followed by registration of effect. After that consciousness lapses into the life-continuum.
Simile of the mango¶
Q. What is the illustration? A. The king sleeps in his chamber, having closed the door. A slave-girl massages the king’s feet. The queen sits near him. Ministers and courtiers are ranged in front of him. A deaf man is guarding the door with his back against it. At that time the king’s gardener, bringing mangoes, knocks at the door. Hearing that sound, the king awakes, and says to the slave-girl, “Go and open the door”. The slave goes to the door-keeper and speaks to him in gesture. That deaf door-keeper understands her wish and opens the door and sees the mangoes. The king takes his sword. The slave brings the fruits and hands them to a minister. The minister presents them to the queen. The queen washes them and sorts the ripe from the raw, places them in a vessel and gives them to the king. Getting them, the king eats the fruits. After eating them, he talks of the merit or non-merit of them. After that he sleeps again.
The sleeping king is the life-continuum. The king’s gardener, bringing mangoes and knocking at the door, is the impact of the visible object on the eye-door. The awakening of the king by the knocking at the door, and his command to open the door, illustrate the vibration of the life-continuum. The slave-girl’s gestures, in requesting the door-keeper to open the door, is adverting. The opening of the door by the deaf door-keeper and the sight of the mangoes illustrate eye-consciousness. The taking of the sword by the king and the handing of the fruits by the slave to the minister illustrate reception. The presentation of the fruits by the minister to the queen is examining. The [257/320] actions of washing, sorting, placing the fruits in a vessel and offering them to the king illustrate determining. The eating by the king is apperception. His talking as to the merits or demerits of the fruits illustrate registration of effect, and his sleeping again is the lapsing into the life-continuum. 
Here, consciousness depending on the impact of objects of middling intensity at the eye-door proceeds up to apperception and immediately lapses into the life-continuum. Through the impact of objects of lower intensity, consciousness lapses into the life-continuum immediately after determining. In the same way the procedure at the other doors should be understood. At the mind-door there is no impact of object. Conditioned by attention, and free from activities is the object grasped at the mind-door. Here, with reference to a very great object three stages are produced (after vibration) of the life-continuum, namely, adverting, apperception and registration. With reference to the objects of great and slight intensity two stages are fulfilled: adverting and apperception.  Here, feeling and perception should be known through various conditions.
Through the conditioning of right-attention  and non-right-attention, various kinds of merit and demerit should be known. Thus one should know through manifestation of the interlocking of distinctive thought. 
Q. How, through comprehension? A. There are three kinds of comprehension, namely, aggregate-comprehension, element-comprehension, truth-comprehension. Here, ten sense-spheres are comprehended in the aggregate of matter. The sense-sphere of mind is comprehended in the aggregate of consciousness. The sense-sphere of states, excepting Nibbāna, is comprehended in the four aggregates. Eleven sense-spheres are comprehended in eleven elements. The sense-sphere of mind is comprehended in seven elements. The five internal sense-spheres are comprehended in the Truth of Ill. The five external sense-spheres are either comprehended or not comprehended in the Truth of Ill. The sense-sphere of mind is either comprehended or not comprehended in the Truth of Ill. The sense-sphere of states is either comprehended or pot comprehended in the Truth of Ill. Thus should comprehension be known. In this way one develops discernment through the sense-sphere method. This is called sense-sphere method.
Sense-sphere method has ended.
Q. What is the element-method? A. There are eighteen elements, namely, eye-element, material-element, eye-consciousness-element; ear-element, [258/321] sound-element, ear-consciousness-element; nose-element, odour-element, nose-consciousness-element; tongue-element, taste-element, tongue-consciousness-element; body-element, touch-element, body-consciousness-element; mind-element, states-element, mind-consciousness-element.  Here, the sensory organ of eye is eye-element. Material form is material element. Eye-consciousness is eye-consciousness-element. In the same way the others should be Known. Mind-door-adverting translates the objects. Mind-element decides the result.
The mind-element is just mind-sphere. All kinds of consciousness except the ideas-element and the six consciousness-elements are mind- consciousness-element. The rest is as was taught at length under sense-sphere. Here, ten elements are comprehended in the form-aggregate. The ideas-element, excepting Nibbāna, is comprehended in the four aggregates. Seven elements are comprehended in the consciousness-aggregate. Eleven elements are comprehended in eleven sense-organs (and sense-objects). Seven-elements are comprehended in the mind-organ. Eleven elements are comprehended in the Truth of Ill. Five elements are comprehended in the Truth of Ill, or not comprehended in the Truth of Ill. Ideas-element is comprehended in the Four Truths, or not comprehended in the Four Truths. Mind-consciousness-element is comprehended in the Truth of Ill or not comprehended in the Truth of Ill.
Q. What is the limit of manifestation?
A. Just the sphere of ideas-element is the limit. The assemblage of the characteristics of a variety of states is called aggregate. The characteristic of entrance is called sense-organ. The characteristic of intrinsic nature is called element. Again, the Blessed One has taught the Truth of Ill by way of the aggregates for the quick witted man. He taught the Truth of Ill by way of the sense-sphere for the average man, and he taught the Truth of Ill by way of the elements for the slow witted man. And again, he has expounded form in brief to those who have the characteristic of attachment to name and aggregate, by way of discernment of name. He has expounded name and sense-sphere, in brief, through the determining of form, to those inclined towards attachment to form. He has expounded the elements through determining mind and form to those inclined to be attached to mind and form.
And again, he has expounded the intrinsic nature of the sense-spheres. He has expounded the aggregates. He has expounded the (internal) sense-spheres and objects. And he has expounded the sense-spheres. He has taught the arising of consciousness and element, through (internal) sense-sphere and [259/322] object. Thus should the distinctions in the element method be known. This is called element method.
Element method has ended.
Conditioned arising method¶
(a) Direct order¶
Q. What is the conditioned arising method? A. Conditioned by ignorance are the formations; conditioned by the formations, consciousness; conditioned by consciousness, name-form; conditioned by name-form, the six-sphered-sense; conditioned by the six-sphered-sense, contact; conditioned by contact, feeling; conditioned by feeling, craving; conditioned by craving, clinging; conditioned by clinging, becoming, conditioned by becoming, rebirth; conditioned by rebirth, decay, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair spring up. Such is the origin of this entire mass of ill. 
(b) Reverse order¶
By the cessation of ignorance, the cessation of the formations (occurs); by the cessation of the formations, the cessation of consciousness; by the cessation of consciousness, the cessation of name-form; by the cessation of name-form, the cessation of the six-sphered-sense; by the cessation of the six-sphered-sense, the cessation of contact; by the cessation of contact, the cessation of feeling; by the cessation of feeling, the cessation of craving; by the cessation of craving, the cessation of clinging; by the cessation of clinging, the cessation of becoming; by the cessation of becoming, the cessation of rebirth; by the cessation of rebirth, decay, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this entire mass of ill. 
Here ignorance is ignorance of the Four Truths. Formations are bodily, verbal and mental actions. Consciousness is rebirth consciousness. Name-form [260/323] means the mental properties which arise together with the continuity of mind and the embryo (kalala). Six-sphered-sense means the six internal sense-spheres. Contact means the six groups of contact. Feeling means the six groups of feeling. Craving means the six groups of craving. Clinging means the four clingings. Becoming means sense-plane becoming, formplane becoming and formless-plane becoming where kamma works. Rebirth means the arising of the aggregates in becoming. Decay means the maturing of the aggregates. Death means the destruction of the aggregates.
Q. How do the formations arise, conditioned by ignorance? How do decay and death arise, conditioned by rebirth? A. The five clinging groups arise for the uninstructed commoner, because of his ignorance of the Four Truths. In the long night (of ignorance), he clings to self and goods thinking: “These are my goods, this is my self”. Thus he enjoys and clings to enjoyment. The thought of becoming brings about reconception. In that thought of becoming there is no knowledge. He clings to becoming because he desires it. 
Simile of the seeds¶
It is like seeds placed in a fertile field. If consciousness is extinguished, becoming is extinguished. This is the meaning of conditioned by ignorance the formations arise. Mental formations, conditioned by ignorance, enter the course of becoming, and integrate. Becoming proceeds; thus it is continued. Consciousness does not separate from mind in becoming. Therefore, conditioned by the formations, consciousness arises.
Simile of the sun¶
As without the sun, there is in the world neither light nor any increase of it, so without consciousness, name-form does not take shape and there is no growth of it.
Simile of the two bundles of reeds¶
As (in the simile of the bundles of) reeds depending on each other, so conditioned by consciousness, name-form arises. Conditioned by the (internal) sense-spheres, the other mental qualities arise together.  The development [261/324] of the mind-sphere is due to name. Conditioned by the four primaries, nutriment and caloric order, the other five (internal) sense-spheres develop and increase. The other does not depend on these. Therefore, conditioned by name-form, the six-sphered-sense arises. By the union of the other faculties, objects, elements and consciousness, contact arises. Therefore, conditioned by the six-sphered-sense, contact arises. Through the sense of touch one experiences pain, pleasure and neither pain nor pleasure. Should one not be touched (then there would be no feeling for him). Therefore, conditioned by contact, feeling arises. The uninstructed commoner experiences pleasure and clings to it and craving for more, he experiences pain; and overcoming it (pain), he, desiring ease, develops the feeling of neither pain nor pleasure, or equanimity.  Therefore, conditioned by feeling, craving arises. Through craving, one clings to what is lovely. Therefore, conditioned by craving, clinging arises. Through that clinging, one sows the seed of becoming. Therefore, conditioned by clinging, there is becoming. According to one’s deeds one is born in various states. Therefore there is rebirth, and through birth, there is decay and death. Thus, conditioned by birth, there is decay and death.
Simile of the seed, shoot and plant¶
As paddy-seeds are conditioned by the paddy plant, so conditioned by ignorance the formations arise. Conditioned by the seed is the bud;  so is the arising of consciousness, by the formations. Conditioned by the bud is the leaf; so is the arising of name-form, by consciousness. Conditioned by the leaf is the branch; so is the arising of the six-sphered-sense, by nameform. Conditioned by the branch is the plant; so is the arising of contact, by the six-sphered-sense. Conditioned by the plant is the flower; so is the arising of feeling, by contact. Conditioned by the flower is the nectar; so is the arising of craving, by feeling. Conditioned by the nectar is the ear of rice; so is the arising of clinging, by craving. Conditioned by the ear of rice is the seed; so is the arising of becoming, by clinging. Conditioned by the seed is the bud; so is the arising of birth, by becoming. Thus the several successions come to be. Thus one cannot know the past or the future. Thus birth succeeds beginning with the causal condition of ignorance. Of it the past or the future cannot be known. 
What conditions ignorance¶
Q. By what is ignorance conditioned? A. Ignorance is indeed conditioned [262/325] by ignorance.  The latencies become the condition of the encompassing defilements. The encompassing defilements become the condition of the latencies. 
And again, all defilements become the condition of ignorance according to the teaching of the Buddha thus: “From the origin of the cankers, origin of ignorance arises”.  And again, it is likened to a single thought-state (?). Seeing a form with the eye, the uninstructed commoner develops craving. The bare enjoyment of that time is delusion of mind. This is called ignorance. Through attachment to this ignorance, one conditions the formations. Through attachment to these formations, one conditions consciousness, and knows the associated states of mind and the material object produced by the formations. Conditioned by this consciousness, name-form arises. From feeling joy is produced. Conditioned by joy and conditioned by the joy- producing material object, the bare faculties arise. Thus conditioned by name-form the six-sphered-sense arises. Conditioned by pleasurable contact, feeling arises. Conditioned by the craving for feeling, craving arises. Through attachment to bare pleasure and conditioned by craving, clinging arises. Through attachment to and conditioned by clinging, there is becoming. Conditioned by becoming, birth arises, and when living (begins) to end—this is decay. To scatter and to destroy—this is death. Thus in one moment the twelvefold conditioned arising is fulfilled.
Q. Of the factors of the twelvefold conditioned arising, how many are defilements, how many are actions, how many are results, how many are past, how many are future, how many are present, how many are cause-conditions, how many have already developed? What is conditioned arising? What is conditioned arising doctrine? What are the differences between these two? Why is conditioned arising so profound? [263/326]
A. Three are the defilements, namely, ignorance, craving and clinging. Two are actions, namely, the formations and becoming. The other seven results.
Simile of the colours of a painter¶
Here, the defilements are a cause of future life, like the colours of a painter. Their objects are not self-produced, as also are the colour-object of the painter. Defilements cause becoming like the different colours of the painter. These two are past, namely, ignorance and the formations. These two are of the future, namely, birth and decay-and-death. The other eight are of the present. Thus it is as to the three divisions of time. Therefore one should know that birth and death proceed from beginningless time. The factors of the twelvefold conditioned arising should not be taught (separately). Further, no conditioned arising should be taught which does not consist of these twelve. Then, what is conditioned arising? Just these twelve which in turn become condition. Therefore this is called conditioned arising. The twelve factors are states which have already developed. What is the difference between the two? The working of conditioned arising being different (in each case) and being not complete, one cannot speak of it. Be they conditioned or non-conditioned,  they cannot be explained. States of conditioned arising that have already developed, have finished their task and are conditioned. This is the difference between the two. Why is this conditioned arising profound? One is able to know the way and characteristic by which ignorance conditions the formations. A delivered one, without the aid of another, is able to discern its working, characteristics and nature. These constitute the profound nature of conditioned arising. 
Conditioned arising to be known in seven ways¶
And again, this conditioned arising should be known through seven ways thus: through the three links, the four groups, the twenty modes, the wheel, order, discernment and through comprehension.
Death of the ignorant craving evil-doer¶
A. Here a man, who performs actions which are associated with ignorance and craving, is an evil-doer. When he comes to die, he suffers. Lying on his death-couch, he does not see this world. He does not see that world. He loses mindfulness and cannot recover it. At this time he suffers the ill of rebirth. Mindfulness draws away from his mind, and strength from his body. He loses his faculties gradually. The body quakes. Vitality ebbs and his body becomes like a dried tāla leaf. At this time he is like one asleep and dreaming.
Action, action-sign, destiny, destiny-sign¶
Through action, four states arise. They are action, action-sign, destiny, destiny-sign. 
What is action? The merit and non-merit one has made. They are heavy or light, many or few. The action-sign that uprises (as result) conforms to the action already done. The action-sign resembles action already done. Destiny: A happy destiny arises through the conditioning of merit. An evil destiny arises through the conditioning of demerit. Destiny-sign: At the time of entry into the womb, three objects unite to produce rebirth. Rebirth [265/328] depends on the place of birth, namely, a palace, habitation, mountain, tree, or river, according to destiny. The appropriate grasping-sign arises, and the man, leaning or sitting or lying (on his death-couch), grasps that. After the consciousness which apperceives the past action or the action-sign or the destiny or the destiny-sign ends, the last consciousness arises without a break gradually through apperceptional consciousness. Only that action or action-sign or destiny or destiny-sign becomes the object of the basic resultant consciousness. Like the lighting of a lamp by a lamp,  or like fire issuing from a flame is re-linking consciousness. 
In the womb of the mother, through the impurity of parents, thirty material qualities are fulfilled by action of ten (?) sense-spheres. In the moment of decay, forty-six material qualities are fulfilled, 
Thus consciousness conditions name-form. Name-form conditions consciousness.  Thus the link of becoming is fulfilled. Here, the fulfilment of the three links should be understood.
Four group division¶
Q. How, through the four groups? A. Ignorance and the formations are divisions of the groups of action and defilement of the past. Consciousness, name-form, the six-sphered-sense, contact and feeling are divisions of the groups of effect in the present. Craving, clinging and becoming are divisions of action, and defilement of the present. Rebirth, and decay-and-death are divisions of effect of the future. Thus one should know through the four- group division.
Q. How, through twenty modes? A. Through the grasping of ignorance and of past craving and clinging and through the defilement-sign being grasped. Through the grasping of the formations of past becoming and through the action-sign being grasped. Through the grasping of consciousness, of name-form, [266/329] of the six-sphered-sense, of contact, of feeling and through birth and decay-and-death of the result-sign of the present being grasped. Through the grasping of craving, clinging and through the defilement-sign of the present being grasped. Through the grasping of becoming the present formations are grasped through the action-sign. Through the grasping of birth, decay and death, future consciousness, name-form, the six-sphered-sense, contact, feeling are grasped. These twenty-four states become twenty.
It is according to the teaching in the Abhidhamma: “In the previous kamma-becoming, delusion is ignorance, effort is the formations, desire is craving, grasping is clinging, volition is becoming. Thus these five states of the previous kamma-becoming are causes of the present rebirth. From the maturity of the sense-organs, here, delusion is ignorance; effort is the formations; desire is craving; grasping is clinging; volition is becoming. Thus these five states, here in kamma-becoming are causes of rebirth in the future. Here, rebirth is consciousness ; descent is name-form; sensory organism is senseorgan; the being touched is touch; the being felt is feeling. Thus these five states, here, in rebirth-becoming are cause of kamma already done. Thus one should know through twenty ways”. 
How, through wheel? Ignorance conditions the formations; the formations condition consciousness; thus birth conditions decay and death. Thus the whole aggregate of ill arises. Therefore all constitute the aggregate of ill. Not knowing is called ignorance. Ignorance conditions the formations. Thus should it be known by way of the wheel.
Direct and reverse order¶
How, through order? Order is of two kinds. They are, the one which begins from ignorance and the one which begins from decay and death. Questioned as to that which begins from ignorance, one should answer in the direct order; and questioned as to that which begins from decay and death, the answer should be in the reverse order.
And again, that which begins from ignorance is fixed; one can see the way to the future. That which begins with decay is the end; one can see the way to the past. Thus one should know through order. [267/330]
Mundane and supramundane conditioned arising¶
Q. How, through discernment? A. There are two kinds of conditioned arising: mundane conditioned arising and supramundane conditioned arising. Here, that which begins from ignorance is mundane. Q. What is supramundane conditioned arising? A. Ill depends on ill. Confidence depends on confidence. Joy depends on joy. Rapture depends on rapture. Calm depends on calm. Bliss depends on bliss. Concentration depends on concentration. Right views depend on right Views. Aversion depends on aversion, Dispassion depends on dispassion. Freedom depends on the knowledge of the freedom of extinction. This is called supramundane conditioned arising. 
Four kinds of conditioned arising¶
Again, four kinds of conditioned arising are taught thus: the defilement- action is cause; seed is cause; doing is cause; common action is cause.
Q. What is meant by “defilement-action is cause”? A. It is that which begins from ignorance. What is meant by “seed is cause”? It is likened to the succession of seed and bud. What is meant by “doing is cause”? It is likened to the change of material qualities. What is meant by “common action is cause”? It is likened to earth, snow, mountain, sea sun and moon.
There is another teaching. Common action is not a cause. Material qualities, consciousness, states and caloricity are causes. There is no common action, according to the teaching of the Blessed One thus:
Thus one should know through discernment.
Q. How, through comprehension? A. There are four kinds of comprehension: aggregate-comprehension, sense-organ-comprehension, element-comprehension and truth-comprehension. Here, ignorance, the formations, [268/331] contact, craving, clinging and becoming are comprehended in the aggregate of the formations. Consciousness is comprehended in the consciousness-aggregate. Name-form is comprehended in the four aggregates. The six-sphered-sense is comprehended in the two aggregates. Feeling is comprehended in the feeling-aggregate. Birth and decay and death are comprehended in the aggregate of form and in the aggregate of the formations. Ignorance, the formations, contact, feeling, craving, clinging, becoming, rebirth and decay and death are comprehended in the sense-sphere of ideas. Consciousness is comprehended in the mind-sphere. Name-form is comprehended in the five internal sense-spheres. The six-sphered-sense is comprehended in the six internal sense-spheres. Ignorance, the formations, contact, feeling, craving, clinging, becoming, rebirth and decay and death are comprehended in the element of ideas. Consciousness is comprehended in the mind-consciousness-element. Name-form is comprehended in the five elements. The six-sphered-sense is comprehended in the twelvefold truth. Ignorance, craving and clinging are comprehended in the tenfold truth. The other nine, are comprehended in the Truth of Ill. Supramundane conditioned arising way-factor is comprehended in the Path-truth. The extinction of conditioned arising is comprehended in the Truth of Cessation. Thus one should know through comprehension. Through these ways should one understand the method of conditioned arising. This is called conditioned arising method.
Conditioned arising method has ended.
The Tenth Fascicle of the Path of Freedom has ended.
The four noble truths¶
Q. What is the method of understanding the Noble Truths?
A. There are Four Noble Truths: the Noble Truth of Ill, the Noble Truth of the Origin of Ill, the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Ill and the Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of Ill.
Truth of ill¶
Q. What is the Noble Truth of Ill? A. “Birth is ill; old age is ill; death is ill; sorrow is ill; lamentation and misery are ill; grief and despair are ill; association with those one does not like is ill; separation from those one likes is ill; the not getting of what is wished for is ill; in short the five aggregates of clinging are ill”. 
“Birth is ill”: This is the arising of the aggregates of various beings. All these are assemblages of ill. “Old age is ill”: All the elements, proceeding from birth, come to maturity and lose vigour, colour, faculties, memory and intellect. “Death, is ill”: Fear of the ending of life, “sorrow is ill”: On going to the place of suffering, fear arises. This is the burning within. “Lamentation is ill”: Suffering reaches verbal expression. This is to burn within [270/333] and without. “Misery is ill”: This is the suffering of the body. By this one suffers bodily pain. This is the meaning. “Grief and despair are ill”: These are sufferings of the mind. By these one suffers mental anguish. This is the meaning. “Association with those one does not like is ill”: This means that one is united with persons one dislikes. “Separation from those one likes is ill”: This means that one is separated from persons one likes. “The not getting of what is wished for”: A man loses happiness because he is not able to separate from those whom he dislikes, and because he is not able to unite with those whom he likes. Being unable to secure these he loses happiness. “In short the five aggregates of clinging are ill”: One is not able to separate oneself from these five aggregates of clinging. Therefore these five aggregates of clinging are ill. 
Five groups of clinging¶
Q. What are the five aggregates of clinging? A. The form aggregate of clinging, the feeling aggregate of clinging, the perception aggregate of clinging, the formation aggregate of clinging, the consciousness aggregate of clinging. These should be understood according to the full explanation under the method of (understanding) the aggregates.
Two kinds of ill¶
Here ill is of two kinds thus: ill of sense-sphere and innate ill. The ill of birth, the ill of death, the ill of association with those one dislikes, the ill of separation from those one likes, the ill of not getting what is wished for; in short, the ill of the aggregates of clinging, are called ill of sense-sphere. The ill of sorrow, the ill of lamentation and the ill of grief and despair are called innate ill. [271/334]
Three kinds of ill¶
Ill is of three kinds thus: the ill of misery, change and existence.  Here bodily and mental suffering are the ill of misery. Pleasurable feeling connected with the cankers is subject to. renewal. Therefore it is called the ill of change. The five aggregates of clinging constitute the ill of existence.
Thus should the Noble Truth of Ill be known.
Truth of the origin of ill¶
Q. What is the Noble Truth of the Origin of Ill?
A. “Even this craving, causing new rebirths, accompanied by delight and passion, finding gratification now here and now there, namely, the craving for pleasure, the craving for existence and the craving for annihilation”. Here “causing new rebirth” means: “Craving, wherever it is, causes rebirth”. “Even this craving” means: “Craving is the origin of ill; it is not a co-arising”. “Accompanied by delight and passion” means: “Craving causes the arising of delight. This is called manifestation. It causes to stain. This is called passion. It stirs up delight conjoined with passion”. “Finding gratification now here and now there” means “It causes individuality to arise in various places where there are lovable forms and so forth, and to delight and find gratification therein”. “Namely, the craving for pleasure, the craving for existence and the craving for annihilation”: Everything, except the craving for existence and the craving for annihilation, is comprehended in [272/335] the craving for pleasure. The craving for existence arises together the with view of eternalism. The craving for annihilation arises together with the view of nihilism.  Thus should the Noble Truth of the Origin of ill be known. 
Truth of the cessation of ill¶
Q. What is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of ill?
A. “The utter fading away and cessation of that very craving, leaving it, giving it up, the being delivered from, the doing away with it”.  Thus should be known the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Ill. Q. No. This is also the ending of the origin, because the Blessed One has said: “The cause of ill is destroyed”. A. The cause of ill is destroyed. Therefore the state of not coming to birth and of not perishing is accomplished. It corresponds to realization. Therefore the Blessed One taught: “The ending of the origin is the ending of ill”.
Truth of the path leading to cessation of ill¶
Q. What is the Path leading to the Cessation of Ill? A. It is the Noble Eightfold Path of Right View, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Exertion, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration. Right View is the knowledge of the Four Truths. Right Thought means the three meritorious thoughts. Right Speech is the separation from the four wrong (verbal) actions. Right Action is separation from the three wrong actions. Right livelihood is separation from wrong livelihood. Right [273/336] Exertion is the fourfold right exertion. Right Mindfulness means the four foundations of mindfulness. Right Concentration is the fourfold meditation, jhāna. 
And again, if a man practises the Noble Path, he sees Nibbāna—this is called Right View. He awakes only in Nibbāna—this is called Right Thought. He abandons wrong speech—this is Right Speech. He rejects wrong doing— this is Right Action. He gives up wrong livelihood—this is Right Livelihood. He abandons wrong exertion—this is Right Exertion. He recalls Nibbāna to mind—this is Right Mindfulness. He concentrates on Nibbāna—this is Right Concentration. Here, the faculty of wisdom, the power of wisdom, the basis of supernormal power of scrutiny and the enlightenment factor of the investigation of states accomplish the entry into internal Right View. The faculty of exertion, the power of exertion, the basis of supernormal power of exertion, the basis of supernormal power of will, the enlightenment factor of exertion, and the fourfold right exertion accomplish the entry into internal Right Effort. The faculty of mindfulness, the power of mindfulness, the enlightenment factor of mindfulness and the four foundations of mindfulness accomplish the entry into internal Right Mindfulness. The faculty of concentration, the power of concentration, the basis of supernormal power of thought, the faculty of faith, the power of faith, the enlightenment factor of concentration, the enlightenment factor of joy, the enlightenment factor of calm and the enlightenment factor of equanimity accomplish the entry into internal Right Concentration. These thirty-seven enlightenment accessories accomplish the entry into the Noble Eightfold Path. Thus should the Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of Ill be known. Thus should the Four Noble Truths be understood. [274/337]
Q. Why are four Noble Truths taught and not three or five? A. (If three or five were taught) all might be doubted. These are the consequences and causes of the mundane and the supramundane. Therefore they are four. Q. What is the consequence (and what, the cause) of mundane truth. A. Ill and origin are the consequence and cause of mundane truth. Cessation is the consequence of supramundane truth. The Path is the cause of supramundane truth. Therefore four and not three or five are taught. And again, because of the four sentences: “One should comprehend, one should abandon, one should realize, one should practise”,  there are four.
The characteristics of these Four Noble Truths should be known through eleven ways: through the meaning of words,  through characteristics,  through series in beliefs,  through analogy,  through discrimination, through enumeration, through sameness, through difference, through one kind and so forth,  through inclusion.
Through word meaning¶
Q. How, through the meaning of words? A. The Noble Truths are the teaching of the Holy One. Therefore they are called Noble Truths. Through understanding these well, one fulfils the Four Noble Truths. “Truth” means: “Thus-isness, non-variability, identity”. Ill is the consequence. Origin is the cause. Cessation is ending continued. The Path is the highest view. Thus should these be known through the meaning of words.
Q. How, through characteristics? A. Ill is the characteristic of suffering. [275/338] Origin is the characteristic of cause. Cessation is the characteristic of non-birth. The Path is the characteristic of the means of success. And again, ill is the characteristic of grief, despair, the put together, the limited. Origin is the characteristic of accumulation, cause, condition, fetters, clinging. Cessation is the characteristic of renunciation, solitude, the non-conditioned and the choice. The Path is the characteristic of vehicle, arriving, seeing, reliance. Thus should these be known through characteristics.
Q. How, through series? A. The Truth of Ill is taught first, because it is gross and because it could be easily understood in this world. The Truth of Origin is taught next. The ending of the origin is the ending of ill. After that the Truth of Cessation is taught for the purpose of ending completely. And the Path is taught last. This (method) is like (that of) a clever physician, who at first gets at the root of the disease and later inquires as to the contributory causes. For the ending of the disease, he prescribes according to the nature of the disease. Here, one should know the disease as ill; the cause and condition as origin; the ending of the disease as cessation; and the medicine as the Path. Thus should these be known through series. 
Q. How, in brief? A. Birth is ill; the being born is the origin; the ending of ill is cessation; the path leading to the cessation of ill is the Path. Where there is defilement, there is ill. Defilement is the origin. The removal of defilement is cessation. The means of removal is the Path. (The Truth of Ill removes the illusion of self; (the Truth of) Origin removes the view of nihilism; (the Truth of) Cessation removes the .view of eternalism; (the Truth of) the Path removes all wrong views. Thus should these be known in brief. [276/339]
Similes of the poisonous tree, the ship, the burden¶
Q. How, through analogy? A. Ill should be regarded as a poisonous tree; origin, as a seed; cessation, as the parching of the seed; the Path as fire.
One should regard ill as this shore of fear; origin, as the flood; cessation, as the other shore that is free from suffering and fear; and the Path, as the ship that sails well. 
One should regard ill as the carrying of a burden; origin, as the taking on of the burden; cessation, as the laying down of the burden; and the Path, as the method of laying down the burden. Thus should these be known through analogy. 
Q. How, through discrimination? A. There are four kinds in truth: Speech that is true, knowledge, absolute truth and Ariyan Truth. Here, a man speaks true words and not words that are untrue — this is called speech that is true. Investigation of falsehood — this is knowledge. Nibbāna is absolute truth. The truth practised by the Saint is Ariyan Truth. Here, Ariyan Truth should be realized. Thus should these be known through discrimination. [277/340]
Q. How, through enumeration? A. Except craving, all skilful, unskilful and indeterminate states of the three planes compose the Truth of Ill; craving is the Truth of Origin; the removal of craving is the Truth of Cessation; the Noble Eightfold Path is the Truth of the Path. Again, except craving, all other defilements and the skilful, unskilful and indeterminate states of the three planes compose the Truth of Ill; craving and the defilements (associated with it) compose the Truth of Origin; the removal of these is the Truth of Cessation; the path is the Truth of the Path. Again, except craving, all defilements and skilful, unskilful and indeterminate states of the three planes compose the Truth of Ill; craving and the defilements, and all the unskilful states compose the Truth of Origin; the removal of these is the Truth of Cessation; the path is the Truth of the Path. And again, except craving and the defilements and all unskilful states (associated with it) the other unskilful states of the three planes and the indeterminate states of the three planes compose the Truth of Ill; craving, the remaining defilements, unskilful states and skilful states of the three planes compose the (Truth of) Origin; the removal of these is the Truth of Cessation; the path is the Truth of the Path. Here, to wish for the delightful is craving. Origin means “with craving” and “with latent tendencies”. Other defilements are origin in the sense of removing and in the sense of manifestation of becoming. All unskilful states are origin in the sense of causing to be. Merit of the three planes is origin. Here, craving and the other defilements are origin. [278/341]
All merit of the three planes belong to the Truth of Ill or the Truth of Origin. Because of the characteristics of despair, misery, the put together , and the limited, there is the Truth of Ill. Because of the characteristics of accumulation, cause and condition, clinging and combination, the Truth of Origin is fulfilled. Thus should these be understood through enumeration.
Q. How, through sameness? A. These Four Truths are one through four ways: through the meaning of truth; the meaning of thus-isness; the meaning of doctrine; and the meaning of the void. Thus these should be known through sameness. 
Q. How, through difference? A. There are two truths: mundane and supramundane truth.  Mundane truth is canker, fetter, tangle, flood, yoke, hindrance, contact, clinging, defilement.  It is called ill and origin. Supramundane truth is without canker, without fetter, without tangle, without flood, without yoke, without hindrance, without contact, without clinging, without defilement. It is Cessation and the Path. Three Truths are conditioned. The truth of Cessation is unconditioned.  Three Truths are without  form. The Truth of Ill is with and without form.  The Truth of Origin is unskilful. The Truth of the Path is skilful. The Truth of Cessation is indeterminate. The Truth of Ill is skilful, unskilful and indeterminate.  The Truth of Ill enables to understand; the Truth of Origin enables to remove; the Truth, of Cessation enables to attain; and the Truth of the Path enables to practise.  Thus should these be known through difference. [279/342]
Through one kind etc.¶
Q. How, through one kind and so forth? A. They are of one kind thus: The body which has consciousness is ill. Origin is pride, and the removal of that is Cessation. Mindfulness of the body is the Path. They are of two kinds thus: Name and form are ill; ignorance and craving are Origin; the removal of these is cessation; serenity  and insight  are the Path. They are of three kinds thus: (Misery of the suffering of the three planes  ) is the Truth of Ill; the three unskilful faculties  are origin; the removal of these is cessation. Virtue, concentration and wisdom  are the Path. They are of four kinds thus: (The, four kinds of nutriment)  are ill. The four kinds of overturning  are origin; the removal of overturning is cessation, the four foundations of Mindfulness  are the Path. They are of five kinds thus: The five states of birth  are ill; the five hindrances  are origin; the removal of the hindrances is cessation; the five faculties are the Path.  They are of six kinds thus: The six organs of contact are ill;  the six groups of craving  are origin; the removal of the groups of craving is cessation; the six elements of escape  are the Path. [280/343]
They are of seven kinds thus: The seven stations of consciousness  are ill; the seven latent tendencies  are origin; the removal of the seven latent tendencies is cessation; the seven enlightenment factors  are the Path. They are of eight kinds thus: The eight worldly conditions  are ill; the eight errors  are origin; the removal of the eight errors is cessation; the Noble Eightfold Path is the Path.  They are of nine kinds thus: The nine abodes of beings  are ill; the nine roots of craving  are origin; the removal of these is cessation; the nine basic states of wise attention  are the Path. They are of ten kinds thus: [281/344]
The formations in the ten directions are ill;  the ten fetters  are origin; the removal of the fetters is cessation;  the ten perceptions are the Path.  Thus one should know through one kind and so forth.
Q. How, through inclusion? A. There arc three kinds of inclusion, namely, inclusion of aggregation, of sense-sphere, and of element. Here, the Truth of Ill is included in the five aggregates;  The Truth of Origin and the Truth of the Path are included in the aggregate of mental formations; Cessation is not included in any aggregate. The Truth of Ill is included in the twelve-sense-spheres. Three Truths are included in the sense-sphere of ideas. The [282/345] Truth of Ill is included in the eighteen elements. Three Truths are included in the element of ideas. Thus one should know through inclusion. Through these ways knowledge of the Noble Truths should be known. This is called the method of understanding the Noble Truths. [283/346]