XIII. Other Direct-knowledges¶
1 (2) The Divine Ear Element¶
407 It is now the turn for the description of the divine ear element. Herein, and also in the case of the remaining three kinds of direct-knowledge, the meaning of the passage beginning, “When his concentrated mind …” ( [D] I 79 ) should be understood in the way already stated (XII.13f.); and in each case we shall only comment on what is different. [The text is as follows: “He directs, he inclines, his mind to the divine ear element. With the divine ear element, which is purified and surpasses the human, he hears both kinds of sounds, the divine and the human, those that are far as well as near”( [D] I 79 ).]
§2 Herein, with the divine ear element: it is divine here because of its similarity to the divine; for deities have as the divine ear element the sensitivity that is produced by kamma consisting in good conduct and is unimpeded by bile, phlegm, blood, etc., and capable of receiving an object even though far off because it is liberated from imperfections. And this ear element consisting in knowledge, which is produced by the power of this bhikkhu’s energy in development, is similar to that, so it is “divine” because it is similar to the divine. Furthermore, it is “divine” because it is obtained by means of divine abiding and because it has divine abiding as its support. And it is an “ear element” (sota-dhātu) in the sense of hearing (savana) and in the sense of being a soulless [element]. Also it is an “ear element” because it is like the ear element in its performance of an ear element’s function. With that divine ear element … he hears …
Which is purified: which is quite pure through having no imperfection. And surpasses the human: which in the hearing of sounds surpasses, stands beyond, the human ear element by surpassing the human environment.
§3 He hears both kinds of sounds: he hears the two kinds of sounds. What two? The divine and the human: the sounds of deities and of human beings, is what is meant. This should be understood as partially inclusive. Those that are far as well as near: what is meant is that he hears sounds that are far off, even in another world-sphere, and those that are near, even the sounds of the creatures living in his own body. This should be understood as completely inclusive.
§4 But how is this [divine ear element] aroused? The bhikkhu
408 should attain jhāna as basis for direct-knowledge and emerge. Then, with the [401/459] consciousness belonging to the preliminary-work concentration,  he should advert first to the gross sounds in the distance normally within range of hearing: the sound in the forest of lions, etc., or in the monastery the sound of a gong, the sound of a drum, the sound of a conch, the sound of recitation by novices and young bhikkhus reciting with full vigour, the sound of their ordinary talk such as “What, venerable sir?”, “What, friend?”, etc., the sound of birds, the sound of wind, the sound of footsteps, the fizzing sound of boiling water, the sound of palm leaves drying in the sun, the sound of ants, and so on. Beginning in this way with quite gross sounds, he should successively advert to more and more subtle sounds. He should give attention to the sound sign of the sounds in the eastern direction, in the western direction, in the northern direction, in the southern direction, in the upper direction, in the lower direction, in the eastern intermediate direction, in the western intermediate direction, in the northern intermediate direction, and in the southern intermediate direction. He should give attention to the sound sign of gross and of subtle sounds. 
§5 These sounds are evident even to his normal consciousness; but they are especially evident to his preliminary-work-concentration consciousness.  As he gives his attention to the sound sign in this way, [thinking] “Now the divine ear element will arise,” mind-door adverting arises making one of these sounds its object. When that has ceased, then either four or five impulsions impel, the first three, or four, of which are of the sense sphere and are called preliminary-work, access, conformity, and change-of-lineage, while the fourth, or the fifth, is fine-material-sphere absorption consciousness belonging to the fourth jhāna.
§6 Herein, it is knowledge arisen together with the absorption consciousness that is called the divine ear element. After that [absorption has been reached, the divine ear element] becomes merged in that ear [of knowledge].  When consolidating it, he should extend it by delimiting a single finger-breadth thus, “I will hear sounds within this area,” then two finger-breadths, four finger-breadths, eight finger-breadths, a span, a ratana (= 24 finger-breadths), the interior [402/460] of the room, the veranda, the building, the surrounding walk, the park belonging to the community, the alms-resort village, the district, and so on up to the [limit of the] world-sphere, or even more. This is how he should extend it by delimited stages.
§7 One who has reached direct-knowledge in this way hears also by means of direct-knowledge without re-entering the basic jhāna any sound that has come within the space touched by the basic jhāna’s object. And in hearing in this way, even if there is an uproar with sounds of conches, drums, cymbals, etc., right up to the Brahmā-world
409 he can, if he wants to, still define each one thus, “This is the sound of conches, this is the sound of drums.”
The explanation of the divine ear element is ended.
2 (3) Penetration of Minds¶
§8 As to the explanation of knowledge of penetration of minds, [the text is as follows: “He directs, he inclines, his mind to the knowledge of penetration of minds. He penetrates with his mind the minds of other beings, of other persons, and understands them thus: he understands [the manner of] consciousness affected by greed as affected by greed, and understands [the manner of] consciousness unaffected by greed as unaffected by greed; he understands consciousness affected by hate as affected by hate, and consciousness unaffected by hate as unaffected by hate; he understands consciousness affected by delusion as affected by delusion, and consciousness unaffected by delusion as unaffected by delusion; he understands cramped consciousness as cramped, and distracted consciousness as distracted; he understands exalted consciousness as exalted, and unexalted consciousness as unexalted; he understands surpassed consciousness as surpassed and unsurpassed consciousness as unsurpassed; he understands concentrated consciousness as concentrated and unconcentrated consciousness as unconcentrated; he understands the liberated [manner of] consciousness as liberated, and the unliberated [manner of] consciousness as unliberated” ( [D] I 79 ). Here, it goes all round (pariyāti), thus it is penetration (pariya); the meaning is that it delimits (paricchindati). The penetration of the heart (cetaso pariyaṃ) is “penetration of minds” (cetopariya). It is penetration of hearts and that is knowledge, thus it is knowledge of penetration of minds (cetopariyañāṇa). [He directs his consciousness] to that, is what is meant.
Of other beings: of the rest of beings, himself excluded. Of other persons: this has the same meaning as the last, the wording being varied to suit those susceptible of teaching [in another way], and for the sake of elegance of exposition. With his mind the minds: with his [manner of] consciousness the [manner of] consciousness of other beings. Having penetrated (paricca): having delimited all round. He understands: he understands them to be of various sorts beginning with that affected by greed.
§9 But how is this knowledge to be aroused? That is successfully done through the divine eye, which constitutes its preliminary work. Therefore the bhikkhu should extend light, and he should seek out (pariyesitabba) another’s [manner of] consciousness by keeping under observation with the divine eye the colour [403/461] of the blood present with the matter of the physical heart as its support.  For when [a manner of] consciousness accompanied by joy is present, the blood is red like a banyan-fig fruit; when [a manner of] consciousness accompanied by grief is present, it is blackish like a rose-apple fruit; when [a manner of] consciousness accompanied by serenity is present, it is clear like sesame oil. So he should seek out another’s [manner of] consciousness by keeping under observation the colour of the blood in the physical heart thus, “This matter is originated by the joy faculty; this is originated by the grief faculty; this is originated by the equanimity faculty,” and so consolidate his knowledge of penetration of hearts.
§10 It is when it has been consolidated in this way that he can gradually get to understand not only all manner of sense-sphere consciousness but those of fine-material and immaterial consciousness as well by tracing one [manner of] consciousness from another without any more seeing the physical heart’s matter. For this is said in the Commentary: “When he wants to know another’s [manner of] consciousness in the immaterial modes, whose physical-heart matter can he observe? Whose material alteration [originated] by the faculties can he look at? No one’s. The province of a possessor of supernormal power is [simply] this, namely, wherever the [manner of] consciousness he adverts to is, there he knows it according to these sixteen classes.” But this explanation [by means of the physical heart] is for one who has not [yet] done any interpreting. 
§11 As regards [the manner of] consciousness affected by greed, etc., the eight [manners of] consciousness accompanied by greed (see Table III, nos. (22)–(29))
410 should be understood as [the manner of] consciousness affected by greed. The remaining profitable and indeterminate [manners of] consciousness in the four planes are unaffected by greed. The four, namely, the two consciousnesses accompanied by grief (nos. (30) and (31)), and the two consciousnesses [accompanied respectively by] uncertainty (32) and agitation (33) are not included in this dyad, though some elders include them too. It is the two consciousnesses accompanied by grief that are called consciousness affected by hate. And all profitable and indeterminate consciousnesses in the four planes are unaffected by hate. The remaining ten kinds of unprofitable consciousnesses (nos. (22)–(29) and (32) and (33)) are not included in this dyad, though some elders include them too. Affected by delusion … unaffected by delusion: here only the two, namely, that accompanied by uncertainty and that accompanied by agitation, are affected by delusion alone [without being accompanied by the other two unprofitable roots]. But [all] the twelve kinds of unprofitable consciousnesses (nos. (22)–(33)) can also be understood as [the manner of] [404/462] consciousness affected by delusion since delusion is present in all kinds of unprofitable consciousnesses. The rest are unaffected by delusion.
§12 Cramped is that attended by stiffness and torpor. Distracted is that attended by agitation. Exalted is that of the fine-material and immaterial spheres. Unexalted is the rest. Surpassed is all that in the three [mundane] planes. Unsurpassed is the supramundane. Concentrated is that attained to access and that attained to absorption. Unconcentrated is that not attained to either. Liberated is that attained to any [of the five kinds of] deliverance, that is to say, deliverance by substitution of opposites [through insight], by suppression [through concentration], by cutting off [by means of the path], by tranquillization [by means of fruition], and by renunciation [as Nibbāna] (see [Paṭis] I 26 under “abandoning”). Unliberated is that which has not attained to any of the five kinds of liberation.
So the bhikkhu who has acquired the knowledge of penetration of hearts understands all these [manners of consciousness, namely, the manner of] consciousness affected by greed as affected by greed … [the unliberated manner of] consciousness as unliberated.
3 (4) Recollection of Past Lives¶
§13 As to the explanation of knowledge of recollection of past lives, [the text is as follows:] He directs, he inclines, his mind to the knowledge of recollection of past lives. He recollects his manifold past lives, that is to say, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many eons of world contraction, many eons of world expansion: many eons of world contraction and expansion: “There I was so named, of such a race, with such an appearance, such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life span; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; and there too I was so named, of such a race, with such an appearance, such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life span; and passing away from there, I reappeared here.” Thus with its aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives” ( [D] I 81 ). [Herein,] to the knowledge of recollection of past lives [means] for knowledge concerning recollection of past lives. Past lives is aggregates lived in the past in former births. “Lived” [in that case means] lived out, undergone, arisen and ceased in one’s own [subjective] continuity. Or alternatively, [past lives] is mental objects lived [in the past in one’s former births]; and “lived” in that case means lived by living in one’s [objective] resort, which has been cognized and delimited by one’s own consciousness, or cognized by another’s consciousness, too. In the case of recollection of those [past Enlightened Ones] who have broken the cycle, and so on,  these last are only accessible to Enlightened Ones. Recollection of past lives: the mindfulness (memory) by means of which he recollects the past lives is the recollection of past lives. Knowledge is the knowledge associated with that mindfulness.
411 To the knowledge of recollection of past lives: for the purpose of [405/463] the knowledge of the recollection of past lives in this way; for the attaining, for the reaching, of that knowledge, is what is meant.
§14 Manifold: of many kinds: or that has occurred in many ways. Given in detail, is the meaning.  Past lives is the continuity lived here and there, taking the immediately previous existence as the beginning [and working backwards]. He recollects: he recalls it, following it out by the succession of aggregates, or by death and rebirth-linking.
§15 There are six kinds of people who recollect these past lives. They are: other sectarians, ordinary disciples, great disciples, chief disciples, Paccekabuddhas, and Buddhas.
§16 Herein, other sectarians recollect only as far back as forty eons, but not beyond that. Why? Because their understanding is weak for lack of delimitation of mind and matter (see Ch. XVIII). Ordinary disciples recollect as far back as a hundred eons and as far back as a thousand eons because their understanding is strong. The eighty great disciples recollect as far back as a hundred thousand eons. The two chief disciples recollect as far back as an incalculable age and a hundred thousand eons. Paccekabuddhas recollect as far back as two incalculable ages and a hundred thousand eons. For such is the extent to which they can convey [their minds back respectively]. But there is no limit in the case of Buddhas.
§17 Again, other sectarians only recollect the succession of aggregates; they are unable to recollect according [only] to death and rebirth-linking, letting go of the succession of aggregates. They are like the blind in that they are unable to descend upon any place they choose; they go as the blind do without letting go of their sticks. So they recollect without letting go of the succession of aggregates. Ordinary disciples both recollect by means of the succession of aggregates and trace by means of death and rebirth-linking. Likewise, the eighty great disciples. But the chief disciples have nothing to do with the succession of aggregates. When they see the death of one person, they see the rebirth-linking, and again when they see the death of another, they see the rebirth-linking. So they go by tracing through death and rebirth-thinking. Likewise, Paccekabuddhas.
§18 Buddhas, however, have nothing to do either with succession of aggregates or with tracing through death and rebirth-linking; for whatever instance they choose in many millions of eons, or more or less, is evident to them. So they go, and so they descend with the lion’s descent  wherever they want, even skipping over many millions of eons as though they were an elision in a text. And just as an arrow shot by such a master of archery expert in hair-splitting as Sarabhaṅga (see [J-a] V 129 ) always hits the target without getting held up among trees, creepers, etc., on its way, and so neither gets held up nor misses, so too, since Buddhas go in this way their knowledge does not get held up in intermediate [406/464] births
412 or miss; without getting held up or missing, it seizes any instance required.
§19 Among these beings with recollection of past lives, the sectarians’ vision of past lives seems like the light of a glow-worm, that of ordinary disciples like the light of a candle, that of the great disciples like the light of a torch, that of the chief disciples like the light of the morning star, that of Paccekabuddhas like the light of the moon, and that of Buddhas like the glorious autumn sun’s disk with its thousand rays.
§20 Other sectarians see past lives as blind men go [tapping] with the point of a stick. Ordinary disciples do so as men who go on a log bridge. The great disciples do so as men who go on a foot bridge. The chief disciples do so as men who go on a cart bridge. Paccekabuddhas do so as men who go on a main foot-path. And Buddhas do so as men who go on a high road for carts.
§21 In this connection it is the disciples’ recollection of past lives that is intended. Hence it was said above: “‘He recollects’: he recollects it following it out by the succession of aggregates, or by death and rebirth-linking” (§14).
§22 So a bhikkhu who is a beginner and wants to recollect in this way should go into solitary retreat on return from his alms round after his meal. Then he should attain the four jhānas in succession and emerge from the fourth jhāna as basis for direct-knowledge. He should then advert to his most recent act of sitting down [for this purpose], next, to the preparation of the seat, to the entry into the lodging, to the putting away of the bowl and [outer] robe, to the time of eating, to the time of returning from the village, to the time of wandering for alms in the village, to the time of entering the village, to the time of setting out from the monastery, to the time of paying homage at the shrine terrace and the Enlightenment-tree terrace, to the time of washing the bowl, to the time of picking up the bowl, to the things done from the time of picking up the bowl back to the mouth washing, to the things done in the early morning, to the things done in the middle watch, in the first watch. In this way he should advert to all the things done during the whole night and day in reverse order.
§23 While this much, however, is evident even to his normal consciousness, it is especially evident to his preliminary-work consciousness. But if anything there is not evident, he should again attain the basic jhāna, emerge and advert. By so doing it becomes as evident as when a lamp is lit. And so, in reverse order too, he should advert to the things done on the second day back, and on the third, fourth and fifth day, and in the ten days, and in the fortnight, and as far back as a year.
§24 When by these means he adverts to ten years, twenty years, and so on as far back as his own rebirth-linking in this existence,
413 he should advert to the mentality-materiality occurring at the moment of death in the preceding existence; for a wise bhikkhu is able at the first attempt to remove  the rebirth-linking and make the mentality-materiality at the death moment his object.
§25 [407/465] But the mentality-materiality in the previous existence has ceased without remainder and another has arisen, and consequently that instance is, as it were, shut away in darkness, and it is hard for one of little understanding to see it. Still he should not give up the task, thinking, “I am unable to remove the rebirth-linking and make the mentality-materiality that occurred at the death moment my object.” On the contrary, he should again and again attain that same basic jhāna, and each time he emerges he should advert to that instance.
§26 Just as when a strong man is felling a big tree for the purpose of making the peak of a gable, but is unable to fell the big tree with an axe blade blunted by lopping the branches and foliage, still he does not give up the task; on the contrary, he goes to a smithy and has his axe sharpened, after which he returns and continues chopping the tree; and when the axe again gets blunt, he does as before and continues chopping it; and as he goes on chopping it in this way, the tree falls at length, because each time there is no need to chop again what has already been chopped and what has not yet been chopped gets chopped; so too, when he emerges from the basic jhāna, instead of adverting to what he has already adverted to, he should advert only to the rebirth-linking, and at length he removes the rebirth-linking and makes the mentality-materiality that occurred at the death moment his object. And this meaning should also be illustrated by means of the wood cutter and the hair-cutter as well.
§27 Herein, the knowledge that occurs making its object the period from the last sitting down for this purpose back to the rebirth-linking is not called knowledge of recollection of past lives; but it is called preliminary-work-concentration knowledge; and some call it “knowledge of the past” (atītaṃsa-ñāṇa), but that is inappropriate to the fine-material sphere.
However, when this bhikkhu has got back beyond the rebirth-linking, there arises in him mind-door adverting making its object the mentality-materiality that occurred at the death moment. And when that has ceased, then either four or five impulsions impel making that their object too. The first of these, called “preliminary-work,” etc., in the way already described (§5), are of the sense sphere. The last is a fine-material absorption consciousness of the fourth jhāna. The knowledge that arises in him then together with that consciousness is what is called, “knowledge of recollection of past lives.” It is with the mindfulness (memory) associated with that knowledge that he “recollects his manifold past lives, that is to say, one birth, two births, …”
414 thus with details and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives ( [D] I 81 ).
§28 Herein, one birth is the continuity of aggregates included in a single becoming starting with rebirth-linking and ending with death. So too with two births, and the rest.
But in the case of many eons of world contraction, etc., it should be understood that the aeon of world contraction is an aeon of diminution and the aeon of world expansion is an aeon of increase.
§29 Herein, what supersedes the contraction is included in the contraction since it is rooted in it; and so too what supersedes the expansion is included in the expansion. This being so, it includes what is stated thus: “Bhikkhus, there [408/466] are four incalculables of the aeon. What four? The contraction, what supersedes the contraction, the expansion, and what supersedes the expansion” ( [A] II 142 abbreviated).
§30 Herein, there are three kinds of contraction: contraction due to water, contraction due to fire, and contraction due to air (see MN 28). Also there are three limits to the contraction; the Ābhassara (Streaming-radiance) Brahmā-world, that of the Subhakiṇha (Refulgent-glory), and that of the Vehapphala (Great-fruit). When the aeon contracts owing to fire, all below the Ābhassara [Brahmā-world] is burnt up by fire. When it contracts owing to water, it is all dissolved by water up to the Subhakiṇha [Brahmā-world]. When it contracts owing to air, it is all demolished by wind up to the Vehapphala [Brahmā-world].
§31 In breadth it is always one of the Buddha-fields that is destroyed. For the Buddha-fields are of three kinds, that is, the field of birth, the field of authority, and the field of scope.
Herein, the field of birth is limited by the ten thousand world-spheres that quaked on the Perfect One’s taking rebirth-linking, and so on. The field of authority is limited by the hundred thousand million world-spheres where the following safeguards (paritta) are efficacious, that is, the Ratana Sutta (Sn p.39), the Khandha Paritta ( [Vin] II 109 ; [A] II 72 ), the Dhajagga Paritta ( [S] I 218 ), the Āṭānāṭiya Paritta ( [D] III 194 ), and the Mora Paritta ( [J-a] II 33 ). The field of scope is boundless, immeasurable: “As far as he wishes” ( [A] I 228 ), it is said. The Perfect One knows anything anywhere that he wishes. So one of these three Buddha-fields, that is to say, the field of authority is destroyed. But when that is being destroyed, the field of birth also gets destroyed. And that happens simultaneously; and when it is reconstituted, that happens simultaneously (cf. [M-a] IV 114 ).
§32 Now, it should be understood how its destruction and reconstitution come about thus. On the occasion when the aeon is destroyed by fire
415 first of all a great cloud heralding the aeon’s destruction appears, and there is a great downpour all over the hundred thousand million world-spheres. People are delighted, and they bring out all their seeds and sow them. But when the sprouts have grown enough for an ox to graze, then not a drop of rain falls any more even when the asses bray. Rain is withheld from then on. This is what the Blessed One referred to when he said: “Bhikkhus, an occasion comes when for many years, for many hundreds of years, for many thousands of years, for many hundreds of thousands of years, there is no rain” ( [A] IV 100 ). Beings that live by rain die and are reborn in the Brahmā-world, and so are the deities that live on flowers and fruits.
§33 When a long period has passed in this way, the water gives out here and there. Then in due course the fishes and turtles die and are reborn in the Brahmā-world, and so are the beings in hell. Some say that the denizens of hell perish there with the appearance of the seventh sun (§41).
Now, there is no rebirth in the Brahmā-world without jhāna; and some of them, being obsessed with the scarcity of food, are unable to attain jhāna, so how are they reborn there? By means of jhāna obtained in the [sense-sphere] divine world.
§34 [409/467] For then the sense-sphere deities called world-marshal (loka-byūha) deities come to know that at the end of a hundred thousand years there will be the emergence of an aeon, and they travel up and down the haunts of men, their heads bared, their hair dishevelled, with piteous faces, mopping their tears with their hands, clothed in dyed cloth, and wearing their dress in great disorder. They make this announcement: “Good sirs, good sirs, at the end of a hundred thousand years from now there will be the emergence of an aeon. This world will be destroyed. Even the ocean will dry up. This great earth, and the Sineru King of Mountains, will be consumed and destroyed. The destruction of the earth will extend as far as the Brahmā-world. Develop loving-kindness, good sirs, develop compassion, gladness, equanimity, good sirs. Care for your mothers, care for your fathers, honour the elders of your clans.”
§35 When human beings and earth deities hear their words, they mostly are filled with a sense of urgency. They become kind to each other and make merit with loving-kindness, etc., and so they are reborn in the divine world. There they eat divine food, and they do the preliminary work on the air kasiṇa and acquire jhāna. Others, however, are reborn in a [sense-sphere] divine world through kamma to be experienced in a future life. For there is no being traversing the round of rebirths who is destitute of kamma to be experienced in a future life. They too acquire jhāna there in the same way.
416 All are eventually reborn in the Brahmā-world by acquiring jhāna in a [sense-sphere] divine world in this way.
§36 However, at the end of a long period after the withholding of the rain, a second sun appears. And this is described by the Blessed One in the way beginning, “Bhikkhus, there is the occasion when …” ( [A] IV 100 ), and the Sattasuriya Sutta should be given in full. Now, when that has appeared, there is no more telling night from day; as one sun sets, the other rises. The world is uninterruptedly scorched by the suns. But there is no sun deity in the aeon-destruction sun as there is in the ordinary sun.  Now, when the ordinary sun is present, thunder clouds and mare’s-tail vapours cross the skies. But when the aeon-destruction sun is present, the sky is as blank as the disk of a looking-glass and destitute of clouds and vapour. Beginning with the rivulet, the water in all the rivers except the five great rivers  dries up.
§37 After that, at the end of a long period, a third sun appears. And when that has appeared, the great rivers dry up too.
§38 After that, at the end of a long period, a fourth sun appears. And when that has appeared, the seven great lakes in Himalaya, the sources of the great rivers, [410/468] dry up, that is to say: Sīhapapāta, Haṃsapātana,  Kaṇṇamuṇḍaka, Rathakāra, Anotatta, Chaddanta, and Kuṇāla.
§39 After that, at the end of a long period, a fifth sun appears, and when that has appeared, there eventually comes to be not enough water left in the great ocean to wet one finger joint.
§40 After that, at the end of a long period, a sixth sun appears, and when that has appeared, the whole world-sphere becomes nothing but vapour, all its moisture being evaporated.
And the hundred thousand million world-spheres are the same as this one.
§41 After that, at the end of a long period, a seventh sun appears. And when that has appeared, the whole world-sphere together with the hundred thousand million other world-spheres catches fire. Even the summits of Sineru, a hundred leagues and more high, crumble and vanish into space. The conflagration mounts up and invades the realm of the Four Kings. When it has burnt up all the golden palaces, the jewelled palaces and the crystal palaces there, it invades the Realm of the Thirty-three. And so it goes right on up to the plane of the first jhāna. When it has burnt three [lower] Brahmā-worlds, it stops there at the Ābhassara-world.
417 As long as any formed thing (formation) the size of an atom still exists it does not go out; but it goes out when all formed things have been consumed. And like the flame that burns ghee and oil, it leaves no ash.
§42 The upper space is now all one with the lower space in a vast gloomy darkness. Then at the end of a long period a great cloud arises, and at first it rains gently, and then it rains with ever heavier deluges, like lotus stems, like rods, like pestles, like palm trunks, more and more. And so it pours down upon all burnt areas in the hundred thousand million world-spheres till they disappear. Then the winds (forces) beneath and all around that water rise up and compact it and round it, like water drops on a lotus leaf. How do they compact the great mass of water? By making gaps; for the wind makes gaps in it here and there.
§43 Being thus compressed by the air, compacted and reduced, it gradually subsides. As it sinks, the [lower] Brahmā-world reappears in its place, and worlds divine reappear in the places of the four upper divine worlds of the sensual sphere.  But when it has sunk to the former earth’s level, strong winds (forces) arise and they stop it and hold it stationary, like the water in a water pot when the outlet is plugged. As the fresh water gets used up, the essential humus makes its appearance on it. That possesses colour, smell and taste, like the surface film on milk rice when it dries up.
§44 Then the beings that were reborn first in the Brahmā-world of Streaming-radiance (Ābhassara) fall from there with the exhaustion of their life span, or [411/469] when their merit is exhausted, and they reappear here. They are self-luminous and wander in the sky. On eating the essential humus, as is told in the Aggañña Sutta ( [D] III 85 ), they are overcome by craving, and they busy themselves in making lumps of it to eat. Then their self-luminosity vanishes, and it is dark. They are frightened when they see the darkness.
§45 Then in order to remove their fears and give them courage, the sun’s disk appears full fifty leagues across. They are delighted to see it, thinking, “We have light,” and they say, “It has appeared in order to allay our fears and give us courage (sūrabhāva), so let it be called ‘sun’ (suriya).” So they give it the name “sun” (suriya). Now, when the sun has given light for a day, it sets. Then they are frightened again, thinking, “We have lost the light we had,” and they think, “How good if we had another light!”
§46 As if knowing their thought, the moon’s disk appears, forty-nine leagues across. On seeing it they are still more delighted, and they say, “It has appeared, seeming as if it knew our desire (chanda), so let it be called ‘moon’ (canda).” So they give it the name “moon” (canda).
§47 After the appearance of the moon and sun in this way, the stars appear in their constellations. After that, night and day are made known, and in due course, the month and half month, the season, and the year.
§48 On the day the moon and sun appear, the mountains of Sineru, of the World-sphere and of Himalaya appear too. And they appear on the full-moon day of the month of Phagguna (March), neither before nor after. How? Just as, when millet is cooking and bubbles arise, then simultaneously, some parts are domes, some hollow, and some flat, so too, there are mountains in the domed places, seas in the hollow places, and continents (islands) in the flat places.
§49 Then, as these beings make use of the essential humus, gradually some become handsome and some ugly. The handsome ones despise the ugly ones. Owing to their contempt the essential humus vanishes and an outgrowth from the soil appears. Then that vanishes in the same way and the badālatā creeper appears. That too vanishes in the same way and the rice without red powder or husk that ripens without tilling appears, a clean sweet-smelling rice fruit.
§50 Then vessels appear. These beings put the rice into the vessels, which they put on the tops of stones. A flame appears spontaneously and cooks it. The cooked rice resembles jasmine flowers. It has no need of sauces and curries, since it has whatever flavour they want to taste.
§51 As soon as they eat this gross food, urine and excrement appear in them. Then wound orifices break open in them to let these things out. The male sex appears in the male, and the female sex in the female. Then the females brood over the males, and the males over the females for a long time. Owing to this long period of brooding, the fever of sense desires arises. After that they practice sexual intercourse.
419 For their [overt] practice of evil they are censured and punished by the wise, and so they build houses for the purpose of concealing the evil. When they live in houses, they eventually fall in with the views of the more lazy, and [412/470] they make stores of food. As soon as they do that, the rice becomes enclosed in red powder and husks and no longer grows again of itself in the place where it was reaped. They meet together and bemoan the fact, “Evil has surely made its appearance among beings; for formerly we were mind-made …” ( [D] III 90 ), and all this should be given in full in the way described in the Aggañña Sutta.
§53 After that, they set up boundaries. Then some being takes a portion given to another. After he has been twice rebuked, at the third time they come to blows with fists, clods, sticks, and so on. When stealing, censuring, lying, resorting to sticks, etc., have appeared in this way, they meet together, thinking, “Suppose we elect a being who would reprove those who should be reproved, censure those who should be censured, and banish those who should be banished, and suppose we keep him supplied with a portion of the rice?” ( [D] III 92 ).
§54 When beings had come to an agreement in this way in this aeon, firstly this Blessed One himself, who was then the Bodhisatta (Being due to be Enlightened), was the handsomest, the most comely, the most honourable, and was clever and capable of exercising the effort of restraint. They approached him, asked him, and elected him. Since he was recognized (sammata) by the majority (mahā-jana) he was called Mahā Sammata. Since he was lord of the fields (khetta) he was called khattiya (warrior noble). Since he promoted others’ good (rañjeti) righteously and equitably he was a king (rājā). This is how he came to be known by these names. For the Bodhisatta himself is the first man concerned in any wonderful innovation in the world. So after the khattiya circle had been established by making the Bodhisatta the first in this way, the brahmans and the other castes were founded in due succession.
§55 Herein, the period from the time of the great cloud heralding the aeon’s destruction up till the ceasing of the flames constitutes one incalculable, and that is called the “contraction.” That from the ceasing of the flames of the aeon destruction up till the great cloud of rehabilitation, which rains down upon the hundred thousand million world-spheres, constitutes the second incalculable, and that is called, “what supersedes the contraction.” That from the time of the great cloud of rehabilitation up till the appearance of the moon and sun constitutes the third incalculable, and that is called the “expansion.” That from the appearance of the moon and sun up till
420 the reappearance of the great cloud of the aeon destruction is the fourth incalculable, and that is called, “what supersedes the expansion.” These four incalculables make up one great aeon. This, firstly, is how the destruction by fire and reconstitution should be understood.
§57 There is this difference, however. While in the former case a second sun appeared, in this case a great cloud of caustic waters  appears. At first it rains [413/471] very gently, but it goes on to rain with gradually greater deluges, pouring down upon the hundred thousand million world-spheres. As soon as they are touched by the caustic waters, the earth, the mountains, etc., melt away, and the waters are supported all round by winds. The waters take possession from the earth up to the plane of the second jhāna. When they have dissolved away the three Brahmā-worlds there, they stop at the Subhakiṇha-world. As long as any formed thing the size of an atom exists they do not subside; but they suddenly subside and vanish away when all formed things have been overwhelmed by them. All beginning with: “The upper space is all one with the lower space in a vast gloomy darkness …” (§42) is as already described, except that here the world begins its reappearance with the Ābhassara Brahmā-world. And beings falling from the Subhakiṇha Brahmā-world are reborn in the places beginning with the Ābhassara Brahmā-world.
§58 Herein, the period from the time of the great cloud heralding the aeon’s destruction up till the ceasing of the aeon-destroying waters constitutes one incalculable. That from the ceasing of the waters up till the great cloud of rehabilitation constitutes the second incalculable. That from the great cloud of rehabilitation … These four incalculables make up one great aeon. This is how the destruction by water and reconstitution should be understood.
§60 There is this difference, however. While in the first case there was a second sun, here a wind arises in order to destroy the aeon. First of all it lifts up the coarse flue, then the fine flue, then the fine sand, coarse sand, gravel, stones, etc.,
421 until it lifts up stones as big as a catafalque,  and great trees standing in uneven places. They are swept from the earth up into the sky, and instead of falling down again they are broken to bits there and cease to exist.
§61 Then eventually wind arises from underneath the great earth and overturns the earth, flinging it into space. The earth splits into fragments measuring a hundred leagues, measuring two, three, four, five hundred leagues, and they are hurled into space too, and there they are broken to bits and cease to exist. The world-sphere mountains and Mount Sineru are wrenched up and cast into space, where they crash against each other till they are broken to bits and disappear. In this way it destroys the divine palaces built on the earth [of Mount Sineru] and those built in space, it destroys the six sensual-sphere divine worlds, and it destroys the hundred thousand million world-spheres. Then world-sphere collides with world-sphere, Himalaya Mountain with Himalaya Mountain, Sineru with Sineru, till they are broken to bits and disappear.
§62 The wind takes possession from the earth up to the plane of the third jhāna. There, after destroying three Brahmā-worlds, it stops at the Vehapphala-world. When it has destroyed all formed things in this way, it spends itself too. [414/472] Then all happens as already described in the way beginning, “The upper space is all one with the lower space in a vast gloomy darkness …” (§42). But here the world begins its reappearance with the Subhakiṇha Brahmā-world. And beings falling from the Vehapphala Brahmā-world are reborn in the places beginning with the Subhakiṇha Brahmā-world.
§63 Herein, the period from the time of the great cloud heralding the aeon’s destruction up till the ceasing of the aeon-destroying wind is one incalculable. That from the ceasing of the wind up till the great cloud of rehabilitation is the second incalculable … These four incalculables make up one great aeon. This is how the destruction by wind and reconstitution should be understood.
§64 What is the reason for the world’s destruction in this way? The [three] roots of the unprofitable are the reason. When any one of the roots of the unprofitable becomes conspicuous, the world is destroyed accordingly. When greed is more conspicuous, it is destroyed by fire. When hate is more conspicuous, it is destroyed by water—though some say that it is destroyed by fire when hate is more conspicuous and by water when greed is more conspicuous. And when delusion is more conspicuous, it is destroyed by wind.
§65 Destroyed as it is in this way, it is destroyed for seven turns in succession by fire and the eighth turn by water; then again seven turns by fire and the eighth turn by water; then, when it has been seven times destroyed by water at each eighth
422 turn, it is again destroyed for seven turns by fire. Sixty-three eons pass in this way. And now the air takes the opportunity to usurp the water’s turn for destruction, and in destroying the world it demolishes the Subhakiṇha Brahmā-world where the life span is the full sixty-four eons.
§66 Now, when a bhikkhu capable of recollecting eons is recollecting his former lives, then of such eons as these he recollects many eons of world contraction, many eons of world expansion, many eons of world contraction and expansion. How? In the way beginning, There I was …
Herein, There I was: in that eon of contraction I was in that kind of becoming or generation or destiny or station of consciousness or abode of beings or order of beings.
§67 So named: [such forenames as] Tissa, say, or Phussa. Of such a race: [such family names as] Kaccāna, say, or Kassapa. This is said of the recollection of his own name and race (surname) in his past existence. But if he wants to recollect his own appearance at that time, or whether his life was a rough or refined one, or whether pleasure or pain was prevalent, or whether his life span was short or long, he recollects that too. Hence he said with such an appearance … such the end of my life span.
§68 Here, with such an appearance means fair or dark. Such was my food: with white rice and meat dishes as food or with windfall fruits as food. Such my experience of pleasure and pain: with varied experience of bodily and mental pleasure and pain classed as worldly and unworldly, and so on. Such the end of my life span: with such a life span of a century or life span of eighty-four thousand eons.
§69 [415/473] And passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere: having passed away from that becoming, generation, destiny, station of consciousness, abode of beings or order of beings, I again appeared in that other becoming, generation, destiny, station of consciousness, abode of beings or order of beings. And there too I was: then again I was there in that becoming, generation, destiny, station of consciousness, abode of beings or order of beings. So named, etc., are as already stated.
§70 Furthermore, the words there I was refer to the recollection of one who has cast back retrospectively as far as he wishes, and the words and passing away from there refer to his reviewing after turning forward again; consequently, the words I appeared elsewhere can be understood to be said with reference to the place of his reappearance next before his appearance here, which is referred to by the words I appeared here. But the words there too I was, etc.,
423 are said in order to show the recollection of his name, race, etc., there in the place of his reappearance next before this appearance. And passing away from there, I reappeared here: having passed away from that next place of reappearance, I was reborn here in this khattiya clan or brahman clan.
§71 Thus: so. With its aspects and particulars: with its particulars consisting in name and race; with its aspects consisting in appearance, and so on. For it is by means of name and race that a being is particularized as, say Tissa Kassapa; but his distinctive personality is made known by means of appearance, etc., as dark or fair. So the name and race are the particulars, while the others are the aspects. He recollects his manifold past lives: the meaning of this is clear.
The explanation of the knowledge of recollection of past lives is ended.
4 (5) The Divine Eye—Knowledge of Passing Away and Reappearance of Beings¶
§72 As to the explanation of the knowledge of passing away and reappearance of beings, [here is the text: “He directs, he inclines, his mind to the knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings. With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, happy or unhappy in their destiny; he understands beings as faring according to their deeds: ‘These worthy beings who were ill-conducted in body, speech and mind, revilers of Noble Ones, wrong in their views, acquirers of kamma due to wrong view, have, on the breakup of the body, after death, appeared in a state of loss, in an unhappy destiny, in perdition in hell; but these worthy beings, who are well conducted in body, speech and mind, not revilers of Noble Ones, right in their views, acquirers of kamma due to right view, have, on the breakup of the body, after death, appeared in a happy destiny, in the heavenly world.’ Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, happy or unhappy in their destiny; he understands beings as faring according to their deeds” ( [D] I 82 ). Herein,] to the knowledge of the passing away and reappearance: cutūpapātañāṇāya= cutiyā ca upapāte ca ñāṇāya (resolution of compound); [the meaning is,] for the [416/474] kind of knowledge by means of which beings’ passing away and reappearance is known; for knowledge of the divine eye, is what is meant. He directs, he inclines his mind: he both directs and inclines preliminary-work consciousness. He is the bhikkhu who does the directing of his mind.
§73 But as regards with the divine eye, etc., it is divine because of its similarity to the divine; for deities have as divine eye the sensitivity that is produced by kamma consisting in good conduct and is unimpeded by bile, phlegm, blood, etc., and capable of receiving an object even though far off because it is liberated from imperfections. And this eye, consisting in knowledge, which is produced by the power of this bhikkhu’s energy in development, is similar to that, so it is “divine” because it is similar to the divine. Also it is “divine” because it is obtained by means of divine abiding, and because it has divine abiding as its support. And it is “divine” because it greatly illuminates by discerning light. And it is “divine” because it has a great range through seeing visible objects that are behind walls, and so on. All that should be understood according to the science of grammar. It is an eye in the sense of seeing. Also it is an eye since it is like an eye in its performance of an eye’s function. It is purified since it is a cause of purification of view, owing to seeing passing away and reappearance.
§74 One who sees only passing away and not reappearance assumes the annihilation view; and one who sees only reappearance and not passing away assumes the view that a new being appears. But since one who sees both outstrips that twofold [false] view, that vision of his is therefore a cause for purification of view. And the Buddhas’ sons see both of these. Hence it was said above:
424 “It is ‘purified’ since it is a cause of purification of view, owing to seeing passing away and reappearance.”
§75 It surpasses the human in the seeing of visible objects by surpassing the human environment. Or it can be understood that it surpasses the human in surpassing the human fleshly eye. With that divine eye, which is purified and superhuman, he sees beings, he watches beings as men do with the fleshly eye.
§76 Passing away and reappearing: he cannot see them with the divine eye actually at the death moment of reappearance.  But it is those who, being on the verge of death, will die now that are intended as “passing away” and those who have taken rebirth-linking and have just reappeared that are intended by [417/475] “reappearing.” What is pointed out is that he sees them as such passing away and reappearing.
§77 Inferior: despised, disdained, looked down upon, scorned, on account of birth, clan, wealth, etc., because of reaping the outcome of delusion. Superior: the opposite of that because of reaping the outcome of non-delusion. Fair: having a desirable, agreeable, pleasing appearance because of reaping the outcome of non-hate. Ugly: having undesirable, disagreeable, unpleasing appearance because of reaping the outcome of hate; unsightly, ill-favoured, is the meaning. Happy in their destiny: gone to a happy destiny; or rich, very wealthy, because of reaping the outcome of non-greed. Unhappy in their destiny: gone to an unhappy destiny; or poor with little food and drink because of reaping the outcome of greed.
§78 Faring according to their deeds: moving on in accordance with whatever deeds (kamma) may have been accumulated. Herein, the function of the divine eye is described by the first expressions beginning with “passing away.” But the function of knowledge of faring according to deeds is described by this last expression.
§79 The order in which that knowledge arises is this. Here a bhikkhu extends light downwards in the direction of hell, and he sees beings in hell undergoing great suffering. That vision is only the divine eye’s function. He gives it attention in this way, “After doing what deeds do these beings undergo this suffering?” Then knowledge that has those deeds as its object arises in him in this way, “It was after doing this.” Likewise he extends light upwards in the direction of the [sensual-sphere] divine world, and he sees beings in the Nandana Grove, the Missaka Grove, the Phārusaka Grove, etc., enjoying great good fortune. That vision also is only the divine eye’s function. He gives attention to it in this way, “After doing what deeds do these beings enjoy this good fortune?” Then knowledge that has those deeds as its object arises in him in this way, “It was after doing this.” This is what is called knowledge of faring according to deeds.
§80 There is no special preliminary work for this. And as in this case, so too in the case of knowledge of the future; for these have the divine eye as their basis and their success is dependent on that of the divine eye.
§81 As to ill-conducted in body, etc., it is bad conduct (duṭṭhu caritaṃ), or it is corrupted conduct (duṭṭhaṃ caritaṃ) because it is rotten with defilements, thus it is ill-conduct (duccarita). The ill-conduct comes about by means of the body, or the ill-conduct has arisen due to the body, thus it is ill-conduct in body; so too with the rest. Ill-conducted is endowed with ill-conduct.
§82 Revilers of Noble Ones: being desirous of harm for Noble Ones consisting of Buddhas, Paccekabuddhas, and disciples, and also of householders who are stream-enterers, they revile them with the worst accusations or with denial of their special qualities (see [Ud] 44 and MN 12); they abuse and upbraid them, is what is meant.
§83 Herein, it should be understood that when they say, “They have no asceticism, they are not ascetics,” they revile them with the worst accusation; [418/476] and when they say, “They have no jhāna or liberation or path of fruition, etc.,” they revile them with denial of their special qualities. And whether done knowingly or unknowingly it is in either case reviling of Noble Ones; it is weighty kamma resembling that of immediate result, and it is an obstacle both to heaven and to the path. But it is remediable.
§84 The following story should be understood in order to make this clear. An elder and a young bhikkhu, it seems, wandered for alms in a certain village. At the first house they got only a spoonful of hot gruel. The elder’s stomach was paining him with wind. He thought, “This gruel is good for me; I shall drink it before it gets cold.” People brought a wooden stool to the doorstep, and he sat down and drank it. The other was disgusted and remarked, “The old man has let his hunger get the better of him and has done what he should be ashamed to do.” The elder wandered for alms, and on returning to the monastery he asked the young bhikkhu, “Have you any footing in this Dispensation, friend?”—“Yes, venerable sir, I am a stream-enterer.”—“Then, friend, do not try for the higher paths; one whose cankers are destroyed has been reviled by you.” The young bhikkhu asked for the elder’s forgiveness and was thereby restored to his former state.
§85 So one who reviles a Noble One, even if he is one himself, should go to him; if he himself is senior,
426 he should sit down in the squatting position and get his forgiveness in this way, “I have said such and such to the venerable one; may he forgive me.” If he himself is junior, he should pay homage, and sitting in the squatting position and holding out his hand palms together, he should get his forgiveness in this way, “I have said such and such to you, venerable sir; forgive me.” If the other has gone away, he should get his forgiveness either by going to him himself or by sending someone such as a co-resident.
§86 If he can neither go nor send, he should go to the bhikkhus who live in that monastery, and, sitting down in the squatting position if they are junior, or acting in the way already described if they are senior, he should get forgiveness by saying, “Venerable sirs, I have said such and such to the venerable one named so and so; may that venerable one forgive me.” And this should also be done when he fails to get forgiveness in his presence.
§87 If it is a bhikkhu who wanders alone and it cannot be discovered where he is living or where he has gone, he should go to a wise bhikkhu and say, “Venerable sir, I have said such and such to the venerable one named so and so. When I remember it, I am remorseful. What shall I do?” He should be told, “Think no more about it; the elder forgives you. Set your mind at rest.” Then he should extend his hands palms together in the direction taken by the Noble One and say, “Forgive me.”
§88 If the Noble One has attained the final Nibbāna, he should go to the place where the bed is, on which he attained the final Nibbāna, and should go as far as the charnel ground to ask forgiveness. When this has been done, there is no obstruction either to heaven or to the path. He becomes as he was before.
§89 Wrong in their views: having distorted vision. Acquirers of kamma due to wrong view: those who have kamma of the various kinds acquired through wrong [419/477] view, and also those who incite others to bodily kamma, etc., rooted in wrong view. And here, though reviling of Noble Ones has already been included by the mention of verbal misconduct, and though wrong view has already been included by the mention of mental misconduct, it may be understood, nevertheless, that the two are mentioned again in order to emphasize their great reprehensibility.
§90 Reviling Noble Ones is greatly reprehensible because of its resemblance to kamma with immediate result. For this is said: “Sāriputta, just as a bhikkhu possessing virtuous conduct, concentration and understanding could here and now attain final knowledge, so it is in this case, I say; if he does not abandon such talk and such thoughts and renounce such views, he will find himself in hell as surely as if he had been carried off and put there” ( [M] I 71 ). 
427 And there is nothing more reprehensible than wrong view, according as it is said: “Bhikkhus, I do not see any one thing so reprehensible as wrong view” ( [A] I 33 ).
§91 On the breakup of the body: on the giving up of the clung-to aggregates. After death: in the taking up of the aggregates generated next after that. Or alternatively, on the breakup of the body is on the interruption of the life faculty, and after death is beyond the death consciousness.
§92 A state of loss and the rest are all only synonyms for hell. Hell is a state of loss (apāya) because it is removed (apeta) from the reason (aya)  known as merit, which is the cause of [attaining] heaven and deliverance; or because of the absence (abhāva) of any origin (āya) of pleasures. The destiny (gati, going), the refuge, of suffering (dukkha) is the unhappy destiny (duggati); or the destiny (gati) produced by kamma that is corrupted (duṭṭha) by much hate (dosa) is an unhappy destiny (duggati). Those who commit wrongdoings, being separated out (vivasa) fall (nipatanti) in here, thus it is perdition (vinipāta); or alternatively, when they are destroyed (vinassanto), they fall (patanti) in here, all their limbs being broken up, thus it is perdition (vinipāta). There is no reason (aya) reckoned as satisfying here, thus it is hell (niraya).
§93 Or alternatively, the animal generation is indicated by the mention of states of loss; for the animal generation is a state of loss because it is removed from the happy destiny; but it is not an unhappy destiny because it allows the existence of royal nāgas (serpents), who are greatly honoured. The realm of ghosts is indicated by the mention of the unhappy destiny; for that is both a state of loss and an unhappy destiny because it is removed from the happy destiny and because it is the destiny of suffering; but it is not perdition because it is not a state of perdition such as that of the asura demons. The race of asura demons is indicated by the mention of perdition; for that is both a state of loss and an unhappy destiny in the way already described, and it is called “perdition” (deprivation) from all opportunities. Hell itself in the various aspects of Avīci, etc., is indicated by the mention of hell.
[420/478] Have … appeared: have gone to; have been reborn there, is the intention.
§94 The bright side should be understood in the opposite way. But there is this difference. Here the mention of the happy destiny includes the human destiny, and only the divine destiny is included by the mention of heavenly. Herein, a good (sundara) destiny (gati) is a happy destiny (sugati). It is the very highest (suṭṭhu aggo) in such things as the objective fields comprising visible objects, etc., thus it is heavenly (sagga). All that is a world (loka) in the sense of crumbling and disintegrating (lujjana-palujjana). This is the word meaning.
Thus with the divine eye, etc., is all a summing-up phrase; the meaning here in brief is this: so with the divine eye … he sees.
§95 Now, a clansman who is a beginner and wants to see in this way should make sure that the jhāna, which has a kasiṇa as its object and is the basis for direct-knowledge, is made in all ways susceptible of his guidance. Then one of these three kasiṇas, that is to say, the fire kasiṇa, white kasiṇa,
428 or light kasiṇa, should be brought to the neighbourhood [of the arising of divine-eye knowledge]. He should make this access jhāna his resort and stop there to extend [the kasiṇa]; the intention is that absorption should not be aroused here; for if he does induce absorption, the [kasiṇa] will become the support for basic jhāna, but not for the [direct-knowledge] preliminary work. The light kasiṇa is the best of the three. So either that, or one of the others, should be worked up in the way stated in the Description of the Kasiṇas, and it should be stopped at the level of access and extended there. And the method for extending it should be understood in the way already described there too. It is only what is visible within the area to which the kasiṇa has been extended that can be seen.
§96 However, while he is seeing what is visible, the turn of the preliminary work runs out. Thereupon the light disappears. When that has disappeared, he no longer sees what is visible (cf. [M] III 158 ). Then he should again and again attain the basic jhāna, emerge and pervade with light. In this way the light gradually gets consolidated till at length it remains in whatever sized area has been delimited by him in this way, “Let there be light here.” Even if he sits watching all day he can still see visible objects.
§97 And here there is the simile of the man who set out on a journey by night with a grass torch. Someone set out on a journey by night, it seems, with a grass torch. His torch stopped flaming. Then the even and uneven places were no more evident to him. He stubbed the torch on the ground and it again blazed up. In doing so it gave more light than before. As it went on dying out and flaring up again, eventually the sun rose. When the sun had risen, he thought, “There is no further need of the torch,” and he threw it away and went on by daylight.
§98 Herein, the kasiṇa light at the time of the preliminary work is like the light of the torch. His no more seeing what is visible when the light has disappeared owing to the turn of the preliminary work running out while he is seeing what is visible is like the man’s not seeing the even and uneven places owing to the torch’s stopping flaming. His repeated attaining is like the stubbing of the torch. His more powerful pervasion with light by repeating the preliminary work is like the torch’s giving more light than before. The strong light’s [421/479] remaining in as large an area as he delimits is like the sun’s rising. His seeing even during a whole day what is visible in the strong light after throwing the limited light away is like the man’s going on by day after throwing the torch away.
§99 Herein, when visible objects that are not within the focus of the bhikkhu’s fleshly eye come into the focus of his eye of knowledge—that is to say, visible objects that are inside his belly, belonging to the heart basis, belonging to what is below the earth’s surface, behind walls, mountains and enclosures, or in another world-sphere—
429 and are as if seen with the fleshly eye, then it should be understood that the divine eye has arisen. And only that is capable of seeing the visible objects here, not the preliminary-work consciousnesses.
§100 But this is an obstacle for an ordinary man. Why? Because wherever he determines, “Let there be light,” it becomes all light, even after penetrating through earth, sea and mountains. Then fear arises in him when he sees the fearful forms of spirits, ogres, etc., that are there, owing to which his mind is distracted and he loses his jhāna. So he needs to be careful in seeing what is visible (see [M] III 158 ).
§101 Here is the order of arising of the divine eye: when mind-door adverting, which has made its object that visible datum of the kind already described, has arisen and ceased, then, making that same visible datum the object, all should be understood in the way already described beginning, “Either four or five impulsions impel …” (§5) Here also the [three or four] prior consciousnesses are of the sense sphere and have applied and sustained thought. The last of these consciousnesses, which accomplishes the aim, is of the fine-material sphere belonging to the fourth jhāna. Knowledge conascent with that is called “knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings” and “knowledge of the divine eye.”
The explanation of knowledge of passing away and reappearance is ended.
§103 Among these, the divine eye, called knowledge of passing away and reappearance, has two accessory kinds of knowledge, that is to say, “knowledge of the future” and “knowledge of faring according to deeds.” So these two along with the five beginning with the kinds of supernormal power make seven kinds of direct-knowledge given here.
§104 Now, in order to avoid confusion about the classification of their objects:
§105 [422/480] Here is the explanation. Four object triads have been told by the Greatest of the Sages. What four? The limited-object triad, the path-object triad, the past-object triad, and the internal-object triad. 
§106 (1) Herein, knowledge of supernormal power
430 occurs with respect to seven kinds of object, that is to say, as having a limited or exalted, a past, future or present, and an internal or external object. How?
When he wants to go with an invisible body after making the body dependent on the mind, and he converts the body to accord with the mind (XII.119), and he sets it, mounts it, on the exalted consciousness, then taking it that the [word in the] accusative case is the proper object,  it has a limited object because its object is the material body. When he wants to go with a visible body after making the mind dependent on the body and he converts the mind to accord with the body and sets it, mounts it, on the material body, then taking it that the [word in the] accusative case is the proper object, it has an exalted object because its object is the exalted consciousness.
§107 But that same consciousness takes what has passed, has ceased, as its object, therefore it has a past object. In those who resolve about the future, as in the case of the Elder Mahā Kassapa in the Great Storing of the Relics, and others, it has a future object. When the Elder Mahā Kassapa was making the great relic store, it seems, he resolved thus, “During the next two hundred and eighteen years in the future let not these perfumes dry up or these flowers wither or these lamps go out,” and so it all happened. When the Elder Assagutta saw the Community of Bhikkhus eating dry food in the Vattaniya Lodging he resolved thus, “Let the water pool become cream of curd every day before the meal,” and when the water was taken before the meal it was cream of curd; but after the meal there was only the normal water. 
§108 [423/481] At the time of going with an invisible body after making the body dependent on the mind it has a present object.
At the time of converting the mind to accord with the body, or the body to accord with the mind, and at the time of creating one’s own appearance as a boy, etc., it has an internal object because it makes one’s own body and mind its object. But at the time of showing elephants, horses, etc., externally it has an external object.
This is how, firstly, the kinds of supernormal power should be understood to occur with respect to the seven kinds of object.
§109 (2) Knowledge of the divine ear element occurs with respect to four kinds of object, that is to say, as having a limited, and a present, and an internal or external object. How?
Since it makes sound its object and since sound is limited (see [Vibh] 74 ), it therefore has a limited object.  But since it occurs only by making existing sound its object, it has a present object. At the time of hearing sounds in one’s own belly it has an internal object. At the time of hearing the sounds of others it has an external object.
431 This is how the knowledge of the divine ear element should be understood to occur with respect to the four kinds of object.
§110 (3) Knowledge of penetration of minds occurs with respect to eight kinds of object, that is to say, as having a limited, exalted or measureless object, path as object, and a past, future or present object, and an external object. How?
At the time of knowing others’ sense-sphere consciousness it has a limited object. At the time of knowing their fine-material-sphere or immaterial-sphere consciousness it has an exalted object. At the time of knowing path and fruition it has a measureless object. And here an ordinary man does not know a stream-enterer’s consciousness, nor does a stream-enterer know a once-returner’s, and so up to the Arahant’s consciousness. But an Arahant knows the consciousness of all the others. And each higher one knows the consciousnesses of all those below him. This is the difference to be understood. At the time when it has path consciousness as its object it has path as object. But when one knows another’s consciousness within the past seven days, or within the future seven days, then it has a past object and has a future object respectively.
§111 How does it have a present object? “Present” (paccuppanna) is of three kinds, that is to say, present by moment, present by continuity, and present by extent. Herein, what has reached arising (uppāda), presence (ṭhiti), and dissolution (bhaṅga) is present by moment. What is included in one or two rounds of continuity is present by continuity.
§112 Herein, when someone goes to a well-lit place after sitting in the dark, an object is not clear at first; until it becomes clear, one or two rounds of continuity [424/482] should be understood [to pass] meanwhile. And when he goes into an inner closet after going about in a well-lit place, a visible object is not immediately evident at first; until it becomes clear, one or two rounds of continuity should be understood [to pass] meanwhile. When he stands at a distance, although he sees the alterations (movements) of the hands of washer-men and the alterations (movements) of the striking of gongs, drums, etc., yet he does not hear the sound at first (see Ch. XIV n. 22); until he hears it, one or two rounds of continuity should be understood [to pass] meanwhile. This, firstly, is according to the Majjhima reciters.
§113 The Saṃyutta reciters, however, say that there are two kinds of continuity, that is to say, material continuity and immaterial continuity: that a material continuity lasts as long as the [muddy] line of water touching the bank when one treads in the water takes to clear,  as long as the heat of the body in one who has walked a certain extent takes to die down, as long as the blindness in one who has come from the sunshine into a room does not depart, as long as when, after someone has been giving attention to his meditation subject in a room and then opens the shutters by day and looks out, the dazzling in his eyes does not die down; and that an immaterial continuity consists in two or three rounds of impulsions. Both of these are [according to them] called “present by continuity.”
§114 What is delimited by a single becoming (existence) is called present by extent, with reference to which it is said in the Bhaddekaratta Sutta: “Friends, the mind and mental objects are both what is present. Consciousness is bound by desire and greed for what is present. Because consciousness is bound by desire and greed he delights in that. When he delights in that, then he is vanquished with respect to present states” ( [M] III 197 ).
And here, “present by continuity” is used in the Commentaries while “present
§115 by extent” is used in the Suttas. Herein, some  say that consciousness “present by moment” is the object of knowledge of penetration of minds. What reason do they give? It is that the consciousness of the possessor of supernormal power and that of the other arise in a single moment. Their simile is this: just as when a handful of flowers is thrown into the air, the stalk of one flower is probably struck by the stalk of another, and so too, when with the thought, “I will know another’s mind,” the mind of a multitude is adverted to as a mass, then the mind of one is probably penetrated by the mind of the other either at the moment of arising or at the moment of presence or at the moment of dissolution.
§116 That, however, is rejected in the Commentaries as erroneous, because even if one went on adverting for a hundred or a thousand years, there is never co-presence of the two consciousnesses, that is to say, of that with which he adverts [425/483] and that [of impulsion] with which he knows, and because the flaw of plurality of objects follows if presence [of the same object] to both adverting and impulsion is not insisted on. What should be understood is that the object is present by continuity and present by extent.
§117 Herein, another’s consciousness during a time measuring two or three cognitive series with impulsions extending before and after the [strictly] currently existing cognitive series with impulsions, is all called “present by continuity.” But in the Saṃyutta Commentary it is said that “present by extent” should be illustrated by a round of impulsions.
§118 That is rightly said. Here is the illustration. The possessor of supernormal-power who wants to know another’s mind adverts. The adverting [consciousness] makes [the other’s consciousness that is] present by moment its object and ceases together with it. After that there are four or five impulsions, of which the last is the supernormal-power consciousness, the rest being of the sense sphere. That same [other’s] consciousness, which has ceased, is the object of all these too, and so they do not have different objects because they have an object that is “present by extent.” And while they have a single object it is only the supernormal-power consciousness that actually knows another’s consciousness, not the others, just as in the eye-door it is only eye-consciousness that actually sees the visible datum, not the others.
§119 So this has a present object in what is present by continuity and what is present by extent.
433 Or since what is present by continuity falls within what is present by extent, it can therefore be understood that it has a present object simply in what is present by extent.
It has an external object because it has only another’s mind as its object.
This is how knowledge of penetration of minds should be understood to occur with respect to the eight kinds of objects.
§120 (4) Knowledge of past lives occurs with respect to eight kinds of object, that is to say, as having a limited, exalted, or measureless object, path as object, a past object, and an internal, external, or not-so-classifiable object. How?
At the time of recollecting sense-sphere aggregates it has a limited object. At the time of recollecting fine-material-sphere or immaterial-sphere aggregates it has an exalted object. At the time of recollecting a path developed, or a fruition realized, in the past either by oneself or by others, it has a measureless object. At the time of recollecting a path developed it has a path as object. But it invariably has a past object.
§121 Herein, although knowledge of penetration of minds and knowledge of faring according to deeds also have a past object, still, of these two, the object of the knowledge of penetration of minds is only consciousness within the past seven days. It knows neither other aggregates nor what is bound up with aggregates [that is, name, surname, and so on]. It is said indirectly that it has a path as object since it has the consciousness associated with the path as its object. Also, the object of knowledge of faring according to deeds is simply past volition. But there is nothing, whether past aggregates or what is bound up [426/484] with aggregates, that is not the object of knowledge of past lives; for that is on a par with omniscient knowledge with respect to past aggregates and states bound up with aggregates. This is the difference to be understood here.
§122 This is the method according to the Commentaries here. But it is said in the Paṭṭhāna: “Profitable aggregates are a condition, as object condition, for knowledge of supernormal power, for knowledge of penetration of minds, for knowledge of past lives, for knowledge of faring according to deeds, and for knowledge of the future” ( [Paṭṭh] I 154 ), and therefore four aggregates are also the objects of knowledge of penetration of minds and of knowledge of faring according to deeds. And there too profitable and unprofitable [aggregates are the object] of knowledge of faring according to deeds.
§123 At the time of recollecting one’s own aggregates it has an internal object. At the time of recollecting another’s aggregates it has an external object. At the time of recollecting [the concepts consisting in] name, race (surname) in the way beginning, “In the past there was the Blessed One Vipassin. His mother was Bhandumatī. His father was Bhandumant” (see [D] II 6–7 ), and [the concept consisting in] the sign of the earth, etc., it has a not-so-classifiable object. And here the name and race (surname, lineage) must be regarded not as the actual words but as the meaning of the words, which is established by convention and bound up with aggregates. For the actual words
434 are “limited” since they are included by the sound base, according as it is said: “The discrimination of language has a limited object” ( [Vibh] 304 ). Our preference here is this.
This is how the knowledge of past lives should be understood to occur with respect to the eight kinds of object.
§124 (5) Knowledge of the divine eye occurs with respect to four kinds of object, that is to say, as having a limited, a present, and an internal or external object. How? Since it makes materiality its object and materiality is limited (see [Vibh] 62 ) it therefore has a limited object. Since it occurs only with respect to existing materiality it has a present object. At the time of seeing materiality inside one’s own belly, etc., it has an internal object. At the time of seeing another’s materiality it has an external object. This is how the knowledge of the divine eye should be understood to occur with respect to the four kinds of object.
§125 (6) Knowledge of the future occurs with respect to eight kinds of object, that is to say, as having a limited or exalted or immeasurable object, a path as object, a future object, and an internal, external, or not-so classifiable object. How? At the time of knowing this, “This one will be reborn in the future in the sense sphere,” it has a limited object. At the time of knowing, “He will be reborn in the fine-material or immaterial sphere,” it has an exalted object. At the time of knowing, “He will develop the path, he will realize fruition,” it has an immeasurable object. At the time of knowing, “He will develop the path,” it has a path as object too. But it invariably has a future object.
§126 Herein, although knowledge of penetration of minds has a future object too, nevertheless its object is then only future consciousness that is within seven days; for it knows neither any other aggregate nor what is bound up with [427/485] aggregates. But there is nothing in the future, as described under the knowledge of past lives (§121), that is not an object of knowledge of the future.
§127 At the time of knowing, “I shall be reborn there,” it has an internal object. At the time of knowing, “So-and-so will be reborn there,” it has an external object. But at the time of knowing name and race (surname) in the way beginning, “In the future the Blessed One Metteyya will arise. His father will be the brahman Subrahmā. His mother will be the brahmani Brahmavatī” (see [D] III 76 ), it has a not-so-classifiable object in the way described under knowledge of past lives (§123).
This is how the knowledge of the future should be understood.
§128 (7) Knowledge of faring according to deeds occurs with respect to five kinds of object, that is to say, as having a limited or exalted, a past, and an internal or external object. How? At the time of knowing sense-sphere kamma (deeds) it has a limited object.
435 At the time of knowing fine-material-sphere or immaterial-sphere kamma it has an exalted object. Since it knows only what is past it has a past object. At the time of knowing one’s own kamma it has an internal object. At the time of knowing another’s kamma it has an external object. This is how the knowledge of faring according to deeds should be understood to occur with respect to the five kinds of object.
§129 And when [the knowledge] described here both as “having an internal object” and “having an external object” knows [these objects] now internally and now externally, it is then said that it has an internal-external object as well.
The thirteenth chapter concluding “The Description of Direct-knowledge” in the Path of Purification composed for the purpose of gladdening good people.